Candida infection and colonization among non-trauma emergency surgery patients

 Abstract

Background: Candida is a significant pathogen among critically ill patients. However, candidiasis among non-trauma emergency surgery (NTES) patients has not been previously investigated. Herein we describe the incidence of both colonization and infection from Candida and risk factors for invasive disease in this population. Methods: For this retrospective single center study we included all NTES patients with ICU stay ≥4 days from May 1st, 2002 to April 30th, 2007. Patients were divided into 3 non-overlapping groups: 1) patients with Candida-infection, 2) patients with Candida colonization and 3) patients with negative Candida cultures. Groups were compared by univariate and multivariate analyses to identify significant risk factors for invasive candidiasis. Results: Of all 289 eligible patients, 63 (21.7%) fulfilled the criteria for Candida infection and 110 (38%) were included in the Candida colonization group. Interestingly, from the 63 patients with invasive candidiasis, 25 (39.7%) were infected by a non-albicans species. Upon multivariate analyses, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) (Odds Ratio [OR]: 2.34; 95%, Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.213 - 4.533, p= 0.0112), bacteremia (OR: 4.778; 95%CI: 1.519 - 15.029, p= 0.0075) and surgical complications (OR: 3.903;  95%CI: 1.335 - 11.412, p= 0.0129) were independent risk factors for the development of Candida infection. Candida infection and colonization were both found to correlate with approximately $40,000 - 100,000 mean additional costs). Interestingly, candidemia was associated with 63% all-cause mortality. For all other forms of candidiasis, mortality was not significantly different among groups.   Conclusion: We found that Candida infection is alarmingly high among NTES patients with prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Surgical complications and bacterial infections (VAP and bacteraemia) were significantly correlated with the development of candidiasis.  Candidiasis reached a rate of 21.7/100 discharges, which is significantly higher than most established high-risk populations for candidiasis. Future studies should review the need for antifungal prophylaxis on this population.

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Pages
359 - 366
doi
10.4161/viru.1.5.12795
Type
Research Paper
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Candida infection and colonization among non-trauma emergency surgery patients