It is becoming increasingly clear that diet is one of the major factors that drives the function and composition of the intestinal microbiota. The diet of humans is highly diverse when considering different populations or even a single individual over a relatively short period of time. However, we are just beginning to understand the mechanisms that connect dietary change to intestinal microbiota dynamics. The community of microbes within our distal digestive tract influences numerous aspects of our biology, and aberrant shifts in its composition appear to be associated with several diseases. It is, therefore, necessary to understand how our behaviour and environmental factors, such as changes in diet, impact our intestinal residents. Here we look to recent work to highlight some of the major questions on the horizon for understanding the key role that the Bacteroidetes play in the commerce of dietary polysaccharides within the intestine.
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PMID: 20946983 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2010.