Low dose effects of bisphenol A: An integrated review of in vitro, laboratory animal, and epidemiology studies

 Abstract

In 2007, a group of experts critically analyzed hundreds of publications on bisphenol A (BPA), including the evidence for low dose effects. Here, we have updated these evaluations to determine the strength of the evidence for low dose effects of BPA. Based on the cut-offs for “low doses” established previously (i.e., the lowest observed adverse effect level [LOAEL], or 50 mg/kg/day for mammalian studies), we identified more than 450 low dose studies. Using an integrative approach, we examined five endpoints in depth that had evidence from two or more study types (in vitro, in vivo laboratory animal, and human). Based on all available studies, we are confident that consistent, reproducible, low dose effects have been demonstrated for BPA. We conclude that the doses that reliably produce effects in animals are 1–4 magnitudes of order lower than the current LOAEL of 50 mg/kg/day and many should be considered adverse.

Full Text Options
Article
Metrics
 Share
 Full Text
 Supplemental Material
 Info
doi
10.4161/endo.26490
Type
Review
 Metrics
 Cite This Article
 Permissions
Creative Commons License Permissions
 Reprints
Low dose effects of bisphenol A: An integrated review of in vitro, laboratory animal, and epidemiology studies