Protons and Psalmotoxin-1 reveal nonproton ligand stimulatory sites in chicken acid-sensing ion channel: Implication for simultaneous modulation in ASICs

 Abstract

Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-sensitive, sodium-selective channels expressed in the nervous system that sense changes in extracellular pH. These ion channels are sensitive to an increasing number of nonproton ligands that include natural venom peptides and guanidine compounds. In the case of chicken ASIC1, the spider toxin Psalmotoxin-1 (PcTx1) activates the channel, resulting in an inward current. Furthermore, a growing class of ligands containing a guanidine group has been identified that stimulate peripheral ASICs (ASIC3), but exert subtle influence on other ASIC subtypes. The effects of the guanidine compounds on cASIC1 have not been the focus of previous study. Here, we investigated the interaction of the guanidine compound 2-guanidine-4-methylquinazoline (GMQ) on cASIC1 proton activation and PcTx1 stimulation. Exposure of expressed cASIC1 to PcTx1 resulted in biphasic currents consisting of a transient peak followed by an irreversible cASIC1 PcTx1 persistent current. This cASIC1 PcTx1 persistent current may be the result of locking the cASIC1 protein into a desensitized transition state. The guanidine compound GMQ increased the apparent affinity of protons on cASIC1 and decreased the half-maximal constant of the cASIC1 steady-state desensitization profile. Furthermore, GMQ stimulated the cASIC1 PcTx1 persistent current in a concentration-dependent manner, which resulted in a non-desensitizing inward current. Our data suggests that GMQ may have multiple sites within cASIC1 and may act as a “molecular wedge” that forces the PcTx1-desensitized ASIC into an open state. Our findings indicate that guanidine compounds, such as GMQ, may alter acid-sensing ion channel activity in combination with other stimuli, and that additional ASIC subtypes (along with ASIC3) may serve to sense and mediate signals from multiple stimuli.

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doi
10.4161/chan.26978
Type
Research Paper
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Protons and Psalmotoxin-1 reveal nonproton ligand stimulatory sites in chicken acid-sensing ion channel: Implication for simultaneous modulation in ASICs