Differential impact of structurally different anti-diabetic drugs on proliferation and chemosensitivity of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells

 Abstract

Hyperglycemia during hyper-CVAD chemotherapy is associated with poor outcomes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (Cancer 2004; 100:1179–85). The optimal clinical strategy to manage hyperglycemia during hyper-CVAD is unclear. To examine whether anti-diabetic pharmacotherapy can influence chemosensitivity of ALL cells, we examined the impacts of different anti-diabetic agents on ALL cell lines and patient samples. Pharmacologically achievable concentrations of insulin, aspart and glargine significantly increased the number of ALL cells, and aspart and glargine did so at lower concentrations than human insulin. In contrast, metformin and rosiglitazone significantly decreased the cell number. Human insulin and analogs activated AKT/mTOR signaling and stimulated ALL cell proliferation (as measured by flow cytometric methods), but metformin and rosiglitazone blocked AKT/mTOR signaling and inhibited proliferation. Metformin 500 μM and rosiglitazone 10 μM were found to sensitize Reh cells to daunorubicin, while aspart, glargine and human insulin (all at 1.25 mIU/L) enhanced chemoresistance. Metformin and rosiglitazone enhanced daunorubicin-induced apoptosis, while insulin, aspart and glargine antagonized daunorubicin-induced apoptosis. In addition, metformin increased etoposide-induced and L-asparaginase-induced apoptosis; rosiglitazone increased etoposide-induced and vincristine-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, our results suggest that use of insulins to control hyperglycemia in ALL patients may contribute to anthracycline chemoresistance, while metformin and thiazolidinediones may improve chemosensitivity to anthracycline as well as other chemotherapy drugs through their different impacts on AKT/mTOR signaling in leukemic cells. Our data suggest that the choice of anti-diabetic pharmacotherapy during chemotherapy may influence clinical outcomes in ALL.

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Pages
2314 - 2326
doi
10.4161/cc.20770
Type
Report
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Differential impact of structurally different anti-diabetic drugs on proliferation and chemosensitivity of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells