Persistence and immune memory to hepatitis B vaccine 20 years after primary vaccination of Thai infants, born to HBsAg and HBeAg positive mothers
Volume 8, Issue 7
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Pages 896 - 904http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/hv.19989
: Thailand, anamnestic response, efficacy, hepatitis B, persistence, vaccine
Authors: Yong Poovorawan, Voranush Chongsrisawat, Apiradee Theamboonlers, Geert Leroux-Roels, Priya Diana Crasta and Karin Hardt View affiliations
This study assessed antibody persistence and immune memory to hepatitis B vaccine 20 y after priming with a recombinant hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine during infancy. Infants were vaccinated according to a 0, 1, 6 mo schedule with or without simultaneous administration of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg). Half of the subjects enrolled received an interim booster dose at year 5 (boosted) group, whereas the other half of the subjects enrolled did not (unboosted group). Antibody persistence was assessed until year 20. Immune memory was assessed by administration of a final HBV vaccine challenge dose at year 20 in a second study.
At year 20, anti-HBs antibody concentration ≥ 10 mIU/ml rates and GMCs were higher among subjects in the boosted group (84.2% [16/19]; 95%CI: 60.4–96.6) when compared with those in the unboosted group [44.0% (11/25)]; 95% CI: 24.4–65.1). After the HBV vaccine challenge dose at year 20, anti-HBs anamnestic response for subjects in the unboosted and boosted groups was observed in 93.1% (95% CI: 77.2–99.2) and 100% (95% CI: 76.8–100) of subjects, respectively. The mean anti-HBs antibody concentration (GMC) was 562.0 mIU/ml (292.5–1079.7 mIU/ml) post administration of the challenge dose; this is a 28.5 fold increase from the pre- to post-challenge dose administration at year 20.
This study demonstrates persistence of anti-HBs antibodies and presence of immune memory following hepatitis B vaccination for up to at least 20 y in Thailand. Immune memory was demonstrated for virtually all subjects, regardless whether they received they had received the additional HBV dose or not. The challenge dose at year 20 was well tolerated and a robust response was demonstrated. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00240526, NCT00774995.
Received: December 14, 2011; Accepted: March 12, 2012; Published Online: July 1, 2012