Preparation and evaluation of immunogenic conjugates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi O-specific polysaccharides with diphtheria toxoid
Volume 8, Issue 2
Downloads and Tools
Pages 189 - 193http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/hv.18350
Typhi, conjugate vaccine, diphtheria toxoid, polysaccharide antigen, typhoid
Authors: Aamir Ali, So Jung An, Changfa Cui, Abdul Haque and Rodney Carbis View affiliations
Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), is a major health problem particularly in developing countries. The available vaccines have certain limitations regarding their efficacy, and inability to induce an immune response especially in individuals under 2 years of age. Conjugate vaccines which consist of a bacteria-specific polysaccharide chemically bound to a carrier protein overcome these problems by inducing a T-cell dependent immune response characterized by enhanced immunogenicity in all ages. In this study, O-specific polysaccharides (OSP) of S. Typhi were conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (DT) using adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) as a linker. These conjugates (OSP-AH-DT) were then evaluated for their immunogenicity using mice as a model and showed significantly higher levels of IgG ELISA titers (P = 0.0241 and 0.0245) than lipopolysaccharides alone. Different immunization schedules were compared and it was found that schedule-B (three injections with 4-weeks interval) induced higher immune responses than schedule-A (three injections with 2-weeks interval). We showed that diphtheria toxoid can be successfully employed as a carrier protein for conjugation with Salmonella OSP and play an important role in facilitating adequate immune response.
Received: July 22, 2011; Accepted: October 9, 2011