Efficacy, immunogenicity and stability of a novel intranasal Nanoemulsion-adjuvanted influenza vaccine in a murine model
Volume 6, Issue 7
Downloads and Tools
Pages 585 - 594http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/hv.6.7.11818
Authors: Tarek Hamouda, Alexander Chepurnov, Nicholas Mank, Jessica Knowlton, Tatiana Chepurnova, Andrzej Myc, Joyce Sutcliffe and James Baker, Jr. View affiliations
Mutations of influenza virus increase concerns of worldwide epidemics resulting from the newly emergent strains. Current influenza vaccines are inefficient and require annual vaccinations. W805EC adjuvant is an oil-in-water emulsion composed of nanodroplets with an average diameter of approximately 400 nm. The nanoemulsion adjuvant has been used successfully to stimulate the immune response when mixed with several other antigens in animal models. In this study, W805EC nanoemulsion adjuvant activity was evaluated using nasal influenza vaccination in a murine model. Five to twenty percent W805EC adjuvant was used to inactivate influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34/05 (H1N1). Mice immunized with the nanoemulsion adjuvanted influenza virus intranasally showed a robust specific humoral immune response as demonstrated using ELISA and HAI assays. Serum HAI titers were more than 104 following two vaccinations. Vaccinated mice were also protected against challenge with an LD80 of live influenza virus. Splenocytes from vaccinated mice were assayed for cytokine production following virus stimulation. The cytokine profile demonstrated a robust cellular immune response with enhanced Th1 and Th17 immunity that provided balanced immunity against both intracellular and extracellular forms of the virus. Additionally, the vaccine preparations showed minimal protein degradation but remained potent when stored at 4ºC for up to three months. This work demonstrates that W805EC nanoemulsion adjuvant can effectively enhance the immunogenicity of influenza hemagglutinin antigen. The nanoemulsion adjuvant can result in antigen sparing and cross-protection. The potential exists for a nasally administered influenza vaccine that may require little or no refrigerated storage.