HGF signaling regulates Claudin-3 dynamics through its C-terminal tyrosine residues
The hormone HGF regulates morphogenesis and regeneration of multiple organs and increased HGF signaling is strongly associated with metastatic cancer. At the cellular level, one of the distinct effects of HGF is the de-stabilization of cell-cell junctions. Several molecular mechanisms have been shown to be involved that mostly culminate at the E-cadherin adhesion complex. One of the key determinants in HGF-driven morphological changes is the actomyosin cytoskeleton whose organization and physical parameters changes upon stimulation. Here we have investigated how HGF affects the different actomyosin-associated cell-cell junction complexes, Nectin Junctions, Adherens Junctions and Tight Junctions in MDCK cells. We find that components of all complexes stay present at cell-cell contacts until their physical dissociation. We find that at cell-cell junctions, the mobility of Claudin-3, but not that of other cell-cell adhesion receptors, is affected by HGF. This depends on tyrosine residues that likely affect PDZ-domain interactions at the C-terminal tail of Claudin-3, although their phosphorylation is not directly regulated by HGF. Thus we uncovered Claudins as novel targets of HGF signaling at cell-cell junctions.
Build them up and break them down: Tight junctions of cell lines expressing typical hepatocyte polarity with a varied repertoire of claudins
Tight junctions (TJs) of cells expressing simple epithelial polarity have been extensively studied, but less is known about TJs of cells expressing complex polarity. In this paper we analyzed, TJs of four different lines, that form bile canaliculi (BC) and express typical hepatocyte polarity; WIF-B9, 11–3, Can 3–1, Can 10. Striking differences were observed in claudin expression. None of the cell lines produced claudin-1. WIF-B9 and 11–3 expressed only claudin-2 while Can 3–1 and Can 10 expressed claudin-2,-3,-4,-5. TJs of these two classes of lines differed in their ultra-stucture, paracellular permeability, and robustness. Lines expressing a large claudin repertoire, especially Can 10, had complex and efficient TJs, that were maintained when cells were depleted in calcium. Inversely, TJs of WIF-B9 and 11–3 were leaky, permissive and dismantled by calcium depletion. Interestingly, we found that during the polarization process, TJ proteins expressed by all lines were sequentially settled in a specific order: first occludin, ZO-1 and cingulin, then JAM-A and ZO-2, finally claudin-2. Claudins expressed only in Can lines were also sequentially settled: claudin-3 was the first settled. Inhibition of claudin-3 expression delayed BC formation in Can10 and induced the expression of simple epithelial polarity. These results highlight the role of claudins in the settlement and the efficiency of TJs in lines expressing typical hepatocyte polarity. Can 10 seems to be the most promising of these lines because of its claudin repertoire near that of hepatocytes and its capacity to form extended tubular BC sealed by efficient TJs.
Aquaporin 5 regulates cigarette smoke induced emphysema by modulating barrier and immune properties of the epithelium
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Cigarette smoke, the most common risk factor for COPD, induces airway and alveolar epithelial barrier permeability and initiates an innate immune response. Changes in abundance of aquaporin 5 (AQP5), a water channel, can affect epithelial permeability and immune response after cigarette smoke exposure. To determine how AQP5-derived epithelial barrier modulation affects epithelial immune response to cigarette smoke and development of emphysema, WT and AQP5−/− mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). We measured alveolar cell counts and differentials, and assessed histology, mean-linear intercept (MLI), and surface-to-volume ratio (S/V) to determine severity of emphysema. We quantified epithelial-derived signaling proteins for neutrophil trafficking, and manipulated AQP5 levels in an alveolar epithelial cell line to determine specific effects on neutrophil transmigration after CS exposure. We assessed paracellular permeability and epithelial turnover in response to CS. In contrast to WT mice, AQP5−/− mice exposed to 6 months of CS did not demonstrate a significant increase in MLI or a significant decrease in S/V compared with air-exposed mice, conferring protection against emphysema. After sub-acute (4 weeks) and chronic (6 mo) CS exposure, AQP5−/− mice had fewer alveolar neutrophil but similar lung neutrophil numbers as WT mice. The presence of AQP5 in A549 cells, an alveolar epithelial cell line, was associated with increase neutrophil migration after CS exposure. Compared with CS-exposed WT mice, neutrophil ligand (CD11b) and epithelial receptor (ICAM-1) expression were reduced in CS-exposed AQP5−/− mice, as was secreted LPS-induced chemokine (LIX), an epithelial-derived neutrophil chemoattractant. CS-exposed AQP5−/− mice demonstrated decreased type I pneumocytes and increased type II pneumocytes compared with CS-exposed WT mice suggestive of enhanced epithelial repair. Absence of AQP5 protected against CS-induced emphysema with reduced epithelial permeability, neutrophil migration, and altered epithelial cell turnover which may enhance repair.
Novel mechanism of cytokine-induced disruption of epithelial barriers: Janus kinase and protein kinase D-dependent downregulation of junction protein expression
The ductal epithelium plays a key role in physiological secretion of pancreatic enzymes into the digestive system. Loss of barrier properties of the pancreatic duct may contribute to the development of pancreatitis and metastatic dissemination of pancreatic tumors. Proinflammatory cytokines are essential mediators of pancreatic inflammation and tumor progression; however, their effects on the integrity and barrier properties of the ductal epithelium have not been previously addressed. In the present study, we investigate mechanisms of cytokine-induced disassembly of tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) in a model pancreatic epithelium. Exposure of HPAF-II human pancreatic epithelial cell monolayers to interferon (IFN)γ disrupted integrity and function of apical junctions as manifested by increased epithelial permeability and cytosolic translocation of AJ and TJ proteins. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α potentiated the effects of IFNγ on pancreatic epithelial junctions. The cytokine-induced increase in epithelial permeability and AJ/TJ disassembly was attenuated by pharmacological inhibition of Janus kinase (JAK) and protein kinase D (PKD). Loss of apical junctions in IFNγ/TNFα-treated HPAF-II cells was accompanied by JAK and PKD dependent decrease in expression of AJ (E-cadherin, p120 catenin) and TJ (occludin, ZO-1) proteins. Depletion of E-cadherin or p120 catenin recapitulated the effects of cytokines on HPAF-II cell permeability and junctions. Our data suggests that proinflammatory cytokines disrupt pancreatic epithelial barrier via expressional downregulation of key structural components of AJs and TJs. This mechanism is likely to be important for pancreatic inflammatory injury and tumorigenesis.
Claudin family members exhibit unique temporal and spatial expression boundaries in the chick embryo
The claudin family of proteins are integral components of tight junctions and are responsible for determining the ion specificity and permeability of paracellular transport within epithelial and endothelial cell layers. Several members of the claudin family have been shown to be important during embryonic development and morphogenesis. However, detailed embryonic expression patterns have been described for only a few claudins. Here, we provide a phylogenetic analysis of the chicken claudins and a comprehensive analysis of their mRNA expression profiles. We found that claudin family members exhibit both overlapping and unique expression patterns throughout development. Especially striking were the distinct expression boundaries observed between neural and non-neural ectoderm, as well as within ectodermal derivatives. Claudins were also expressed in endodermally-derived tissues, including the anterior intestinal portal, pharynx, lung and pancreas and in mesodermally derived tissues such as the kidney, gonad and heart. The overlapping zones of claudin expression observed in the chick embryo may confer distinct domains of ion permeability within the early epiblast and in epithelial, mesodermal and endothelial derivatives that may ultimately influence embryonic patterning and morphogenesis during development.
Interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 cause barrier dysfunction in human airway epithelial cells
Emerging evidence indicates that airway epithelial barrier function is compromised in asthma, a disease characterized by Th2-skewed immune response against inhaled allergens, but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Th2-type cytokines on airway epithelial barrier function. 16HBE14o- human bronchial epithelial cells monolayers were grown on collagen coated Transwell inserts. The basolateral or apical surfaces of airway epithelia were exposed to human interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-13, IL-25, IL-33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) alone or in combination at various concentrations and time points. We analyzed epithelial apical junctional complex (AJC) function by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability to FITC-conjugated dextran over time. We analyzed AJC structure using immunofluorescence with antibodies directed against key junctional components including occludin, ZO-1, β-catenin and E-cadherin. Transepithelial resistance was significantly decreased after both basolateral and apical exposure to IL-4. Permeability to 3 kDa dextran was also increased in IL-4-exposed cells. Similar results were obtained with IL-13, but none of the innate type 2 cytokines examined (TSLP, IL-25 or IL-33) significantly affected barrier function. IL-4 and IL-13-induced barrier dysfunction was accompanied by reduced expression of membrane AJC components but not by induction of claudin- 2. Enhanced permeability caused by IL-4 was not affected by wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3 kinase signaling, but was attenuated by a broad spectrum inhibitor of janus associated kinases. Our study indicates that IL-4 and IL-13 have disruptive effect on airway epithelial barrier function. Th2-cytokine induced epithelial barrier dysfunction may contribute to airway inflammation in allergic asthma.