Divergence of Rho residue 43 impacts GEF activity
Volume 3, Issue 1
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Pages 15 - 22http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/sgtp.19557
: GEF, RHO, Residue 43, nucleotide exchange
Authors: Christina M. Sloan, Clancy V. Quinn, Justin P. Peters, Janean Farley, Chris Goetzinger, Molly Wernli, Kris A. DeMali and Shawn M. Ellerbroek View affiliations
RhoA, RhoB and RhoC GTPases are over 85% identical at the amino acid level, with RhoA and RhoC differing at only one residue (43) across the initial two-thirds of their sequences. A putative regulatory distinction between the molecules is their capacity to be uniquely activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). We hypothesize that variation of amino acid residue 43 between RhoA/B (valine) and RhoC (isoleucine) impacts GEF activity. Direct participation of residue 43 in GEF-catalyzed exchange was confirmed by the observation that mutation of this position to a threonine reduced GEF-catalyzed nucleotide exchange activity in vitro (Vav2, XPLN, GEFT, Dbl and Dbs) and greatly depressed RhoA and RhoC GTP-loading profiles in cell lysates. Using a residue swap approach, substitution of RhoA Val 43 with an Ile was found to significantly promote basal nucleotide exchange activity and enhance GTP-loading in cells. Substitution of Val 43 with an Ile in RhoB negatively affected nucleotide exchange in vitro. Substitution of RhoC Ile 43 with a Val increased GEF-catalyzed exchange in vitro. In addition, RhoC-I43V was more efficacious at driving ovarian cancer cell invasion through matrigrel than wild-type RhoC, RhoC-I43T, wild-type RhoA, RhoA-V43I or RhoA-V43T GTPases. These findings suggest that a divergence between RhoA/B and RhoC at residue 43 impacts basal and GEF-stimulated nucleotide exchange activity.
Received: December 13, 2011; Accepted: February 1, 2012