• A backward view from 16S rRNA to archaea to the universal tree of life to progenotes: Reminiscences of Carl Woese
  • Secondary structure adventures with Carl Woese
  • Carl Woese, Dick Young, and the roots of astrobiology
  • Remembering Carl Woese
  • Carl Woese's vision of cellular evolution and the domains of life

 A backward view from 16S rRNA to archaea to the universal tree of life to progenotes: Reminiscences of Carl Woese

Roger A Garrett



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Secondary structure adventures with Carl Woese

Harry F Noller

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Carl Woese, Dick Young, and the roots of astrobiology

John D Rummel


The beginning of the space age in the late 1950s gave rise to innovative and interdisciplinary research concepts and perspectives, including the concept of “exobiology” as a way to approach the fundamental aspects of biology through a study of life outside of the Earth, if it existed. This concept was embodied by NASA into its formal Exobiology Program and into the philosophy of the program both before and after the Viking missions that were launched to Mars to search for signs of life in 1975. Due to both management flexibility and an acceptance of the interdisciplinary nature of the problem of “life in the universe,” NASA program managers, and particularly Richard S Young who ran the Exobiology Program beginning 1967, have made some excellent investments in paradigm altering science of great use both on Earth and on future space missions. The work of Carl Woese is one such example, which has revolutionized our understanding of the microbial world and the relationships of all life on Earth.


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Remembering Carl Woese

Kenneth R Luehrsen



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 Carl Woese's vision of cellular evolution and the domains of life

Eugene V Koonin


In a series of conceptual articles published around the millennium, Carl Woese emphasized that evolution of cells is the central problem of evolutionary biology, that the three-domain ribosomal tree of life is an essential framework for reconstructing cellular evolution, and that the evolutionary dynamics of functionally distinct cellular systems are fundamentally different, with the information processing systems “crystallizing” earlier than operational systems. The advances of evolutionary genomics over the last decade vindicate major aspects of Woese’s vision. Despite the observations of pervasive horizontal gene transfer among bacteria and archaea, the ribosomal tree of life comes across as a central statistical trend in the “forest” of phylogenetic trees of individual genes, and hence, an appropriate scaffold for evolutionary reconstruction. The evolutionary stability of information processing systems, primarily translation, becomes ever more striking with the accumulation of comparative genomic data indicating that nearly all of the few universal genes encode translation system components. Woese’s view on the fundamental distinctions between the three domains of cellular life also withstand the test of comparative genomics, although his non-acceptance of symbiogenetic scenarios for the origin of eukaryotes might not. Above all, Woese’s key prediction that understanding evolution of microbes will be the core of the new evolutionary biology appears to be materializing.


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RNA Biology

April 2014

Volume 11, Issue 4

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About the featured image
The microRNA genes miR199 (middle) and miR214 (bottom) occupy an intronic cluster located on the opposite strand of the Dynamin3 gene (top) in all vertebrate species. By these in situ hybridization experiments, we demonstrate their overlapping expression patterns which is due to their regulation through a common transcript, in striking contrast with the localization of their host gene which is regulated independently.

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