Adipose tissue contains some populations, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) which can differentiate into adipogenic, chondrogenic, osteogenic, myogenic, and endothelial cells. Furthermore, adipose tissue can be easily obtained in large quantities through a simple liposuction. ADSCs are thought to be an alternate source of autologous adult stem cells for cell-based therapy. However, it is time-consuming and inefficient to harvest ADSCs by using a traditional collagenase-digestion method. To meet the demand of large quantities of ADSCs in the basic and applied research of regenerative medicine, we developed a rapid and efficient method for isolation and culture of primary ADSCs. The results indicated that the ADSCs obtained with our method possessed strong abilities of proliferation and colony formation in vitro, and could keep low level of cell senescence with stable population doubling during long-term culture in vitro. Furthermore, these harvested ADSCs were capable to differentiate into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages in the specific induction medium. In addition, the results of flow cytometry analysis indicated that these ADSCs could positively express multiple CD markers, such as CD44, CD105, CD29, CD90, and CD13, and hardly expressed CD31, CD34, CD45, and CD106, which was homologous to the mesenchymal stem cells. Therefore, the ADSCs isolated with our method are consistent with previously reported characteristics of the ADSCs. This new method that we established in this study is an efficient tool to isolate and culture the stem cells from adipose tissue.
The present report is an extension of our preceding publication in Biomaterials (2013) entitled “Effect of RGD nanospacing on differentiation of stem cells.” Cell-adhesive peptide arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) was nanopatterned on a non-fouling poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from rat bone marrow were cultured on the patterned surfaces at nanospacings from 37 to 124 nm. Cell adhesion parameters such as spreading areas varied with RGD nanospacings significantly. The differences were well observed at both the first and eighth days, which confirmed the persistence of this nanospacing effect on our nanopatterns. The proliferation rate also varied with the nanospacings. Osteogenic and adipogenic inductions were undertaken, and a significant influence of RGD nanospacing on stem cell differentiation was found. The effect on differentiation cannot be simply interpreted by differences in cell adhesion and proliferation. We further calculated the fractions of single, coupled, and multiple cells on those nanopatterns, and ruled out the possibility that the extent of cell-cell contact determined the different differentiation fractions. Accordingly, we reinforced the idea that RGD nanospacing might directly influence stem cell differentiation.
In developing therapeutic alternatives to liver transplantation, we have used the strategy of applying a small intestinal segment as a scaffold for hepatocyte transplantation and also as a portocaval shunt (PCS) system to address both liver dysfunction and portal hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of such an intestinal segment in animal models. Hepatocytes isolated from luciferase-transgenic Lewis rats were transplanted into jejunal segments of wild-type Lewis rats with mucosa removal without PCS application. Luciferase-derived luminescence from transplanted hepatocytes was stably detected for 30 days. Then, we performed autologous hepatocyte transplantation into the submucosal layer of an isolated and vascularized small intestinal segment in pigs. Transplanted hepatocytes were isolated from the resected left-lateral lobe of the liver. On day 7, hepatocyte clusters and bile duct-like structures were observed histologically. To create an intestinal PCS system in pigs, an auto-graft of the segmental ileum and interposing vessel graft were anastomosed to the portal vein trunk and inferior vena cava. However, thrombi were observed in vessels of the intestinal PCSs. We measured the correlation between infusion pressure and flow volume in whole intestines ex vivo in both species and found that the high pressure corresponding to portal hypertension was still insufficient to maintain the patency of the intestinal grafts. In conclusion, we demonstrated the feasibility of the small intestine as a scaffold for hepatocyte transplantation in rat and pig models, but PCS using an intestinal graft failed to maintain patency in a pig model.
A regenerative medicine approach to restore the morphology and function of the diaphragm in congenital diaphragmatic hernia is especially challenging because of the position and flat nature of this organ, allowing cell ingrowth primarily from the perimeter. Use of porous collagen scaffolds for the closure of surgically created diaphragmatic defects in rats has been shown feasible, but better ingrowth of cells, specifically blood vessels and muscle cells, is warranted. To stimulate this process, heparin, a glycosaminoglycan involved in growth factor binding, was covalently bound to porous collagenous scaffolds (14%), with or without vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; 0.4 µg/mg scaffold), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF; 0.5 µg/mg scaffold) or a combination of VEGF + HGF (0.2 + 0.5 µg/mg scaffold). All components were located primarily at the outside of scaffolds. Scaffolds were implanted in the diaphragm of rats and evaluated after 2 and 12 weeks. No herniations or eventrations were observed, and in several cases, growth factor-substituted scaffolds showed macroscopically visible blood vessels at the lung site. The addition of heparin led to an accelerated ingrowth of blood vessels at 2 weeks. In all scaffold types, giant cells and immune cells were present primarily at the liver side of the scaffold, and immune cells and individual macrophages at the lung side; these cell types decreased in number from week 2 to week 12. The addition of growth factors did not influence cellular response to the scaffolds, indicating that further optimization with respect to dosage and release profile is needed.
The current prevalence and severity of heart defects requiring functional replacement of cardiac tissue pose a serious clinical challenge. Biologic scaffolds are an attractive tissue engineering approach to cardiac repair because they avoid sensitization associated with homograft materials and theoretically possess the potential for growth in similar patterns as surrounding native tissue. Both urinary bladder matrix (UBM) and cardiac ECM (C-ECM) have been previously investigated as scaffolds for cardiac repair with modest success, but have not been compared directly. In other tissue locations, bone marrow derived cells have been shown to play a role in the remodeling process, but this has not been investigated for UBM in the cardiac location, and has never been studied for C-ECM. The objectives of the present study were to compare the effectiveness of an organ-specific C-ECM patch with a commonly used ECM scaffold for myocardial tissue repair of the right ventricle outflow tract (RVOT), and to examine the role of bone marrow derived cells in the remodeling response. A chimeric rat model in which all bone marrow cells express green fluorescent protein (GFP) was generated and used to show the ability of ECM scaffolds derived from the heart and bladder to support cardiac function and cellular growth in the RVOT. The results from this study suggest that urinary bladder matrix may provide a more appropriate substrate for myocardial repair than cardiac derived matrices, as shown by differences in the remodeling responses following implantation, as well as the presence of site appropriate cells and the formation of immature, myocardial tissue.
Extensive effort has been made to develop a three-dimensional (3D) system for the culture of pluripotent stem cells in human and model animals, which yields lots of benefits for monitoring cell-to-cell or cell-to-environment interaction and for suggesting alternative materials for clinical cases. Initial study using animal model moved toward supporting embryonic stem cells (ESCs) self-renewal in a synthetic scaffold conjugated with suitable peptide motifs. As results, the feeder-free, 3D acellular niche consisting of vinyl sulfone (VS)-functionalized polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based hydrogel binding with extracellular matrix analogs could support ESC self-renewal, but main stemness signals were switched in the 3D environment. We employed this PEG-based hydrogel for 3D culture of human ESCs and further adjustment of hydrogel constituent made it possible to support self-renewal of three ESC lines. In this study, we examined transcriptional and translational activity of integrin heterodimers for optimizing the 3D system by using peptide motifs and subsequently elucidated that transcription and translation of integrin α5β1, α6β1 and αVβ5 were stronger than other heterodimers in a referenced human ESC line.