The complexities of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase function in Hedgehog signaling
Volume 6, Issue 3
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Pages 135 - 141http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/fly.20245
: Drosophila, G-protein-coupled receptor kinase, cyclic AMP, hedgehog, protein kinase A, smoothened
Authors: Dominic Maier, Shuofei Cheng and David R. Hipfner View affiliations
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is essential for proper tissue patterning and maintenance and has a substantial impact on human disease. While many of the main components and mechanisms involved in transduction of the Hh signal have been identified, the details of how the pathway functions are continually being refined. One aspect that has attracted much attention recently is the involvement of G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) in the pathway. These regulators of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling have an evolutionarily-conserved function in promoting high-threshold Hh target gene expression through regulation of Smoothened (Smo), a GPCR family member that activates intracellular Hh signaling. Several models of how GRKs impact on Smo to increase downstream signaling have been proposed. Recently, we demonstrated that these kinases have surprisingly complex and conflicting roles, acting to limit signaling through the pathway while also promoting Smo activity. In addition to the previously described direct effects of Gprk2 on Smo activation, Gprk2 also indirectly affects Hh signaling by controlling production of the second messenger cyclic AMP to influence Protein kinase A activity.
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S Cheng, D Maier, DR Hipfner. Drosophila G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 regulates cAMP-dependent Hedgehog signaling. Development 2012; 139: 85-94
PMID: 22096079 DOI: 10.1242/dev.068817
Received: February 13, 2012; Accepted: April 2, 2012
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