Abstract: In Drosophila, anti-microbial peptides are activated and secreted in response to microbial challenge, but the intracellular route of anti-microbial peptide trafficking and the regulatory mechanism controlling their secretion are yet to be fully characterized. We have demonstrated that in Drosophila immune response cells (i.e., fat body cells and hemocytes) the anti-microbial peptide Drosomycin is localized within Rab4 and Rab11 intracellular vesicles. Moreover, both of these small GTPases were required for the delivery of this Drosomycin cargo to the plasma membrane. At the plasma membrane, exocytosis and Drosomycin secretion depend on the SNARE protein Syntaxin1A. Thus, the depletion of Syntaxin1A impaired the release of this antimicrobial peptide, and resulted in the accumulation of Drosomycin and Rab11 carrier vesicles near the plasma membrane. Intriguingly, a similar phenotype was generated by the loss of the adaptor protein 14–3-3ε; there was accumulation of Rab11 vesicles and Drosomycin containing vesicles near the plasma membrane, and a concomitant increase in the susceptibility of 14–3-3ε mutant Drosophila to acute bacterial infection. This suggested that 14–3-3ε, possibly via interaction with Syntaxin1A, is required to promote exocytosis of immune-mediators, thereby regulating innate immune secretion and organism survival under conditions of immune stress.
Article Addendum to:
T Shandala, JM Woodcock, Y Ng, L Biggs, EM Skoulakis, DA Brooks, et al. Drosophila 14-3-3ε has a crucial role in anti-microbial peptide secretion and innate immunity. J Cell Sci 2011; 124: 2165 - 74
PMID: 21670199 DOI: 10.1242/jcs.080598