Telomere maintenance in cycling cells relies on both DNA replication and capping by the protein complex shelterin. Two single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding proteins, replication protein A (RPA) and protection of telomere 1 (POT1) play critical roles in DNA replication and telomere capping, respectively. While RPA binds to ssDNA in a non-sequence-specific manner, POT1 specifically recognizes singlestranded TTAGGG telomeric repeats. Loss of POT1 leads to aberrant accumulation of RPA at telomeres and activation of the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related kinase (ATR)-mediated checkpoint response, suggesting that POT1 antagonizes RPA binding to telomeric ssDNA. The requirement for both POT1 and RPA in telomere maintenance and the antagonism between the two proteins raises the important question of how they function in concert on telomeric ssDNA. Two interesting models were proposed by recent studies to explain the regulation of POT1 and RPA at telomeres. Here, we discuss how these models help unravel the coordination, and also the antagonism, between POT1 and RPA during the cell cycle.
New insights into replication origin characteristics in metazoans
We recently reported the identification and characterization of DNA replication origins (Oris) in metazoan cell lines. Here, we describe additional bioinformatic analyses showing that the previously identified GC-rich sequence elements form origin G-rich repeated elements (OGREs) that are present in 67% to 90% of the DNA replication origins from Drosophila to human cells, respectively. Our analyses also show that initiation of DNA synthesis takes place precisely at 160 bp (Drosophila) and 280 bp (mouse) from the OGRE. We also found that in most CpG islands, an OGRE is positioned in opposite orientation on each of the two DNA strands and detected two sites of initiation of DNA synthesis upstream or downstream of each OGRE. Conversely, Oris not associated with CpG islands have a single initiation site. OGRE density along chromosomes correlated with previously published replication timing data. Ori sequences centered on the OGRE are also predicted to have high intrinsic nucleosome occupancy. Finally, OGREs predict G-quadruplex structures at Oris that might be structural elements controlling the choice or activation of replication origins.
Genomic insults by endogenous or exogenous sources activate the DNA damage response (DDR). After the recognition of damaged DNA by specific factors, repair mechanisms process the lesions, and a surveillance mechanism, known as DNA damage checkpoint, is triggered by single-stranded (ss) DNA covered by RPA. UV light induces DNA lesions, mainly 6,4 photoproducts (6–4PP) and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), which are removed by nucleotide excision repair (NER). Recent reports shed light onto the mechanism connecting NER and DDR after UV irradiation. How does UV-induced DNA damage activate checkpoint kinases? How is ssDNA generated at UV lesions? In yeast, UV lesions persisting during S phase represent a block for the advancing of replication forks, which temporarily stop and then reinitiate downstream of the damage, leaving a ssDNA region containing the lesion. Nonreplicating yeast and human cells with defects in NER are not able to properly activate the checkpoint cascade, indicating that processing of UV lesions is a prerequisite for checkpoint activation. This pathway also requires the function of exonuclease 1, which acts on NER intermediates generating long tracts of ssDNA. Here, we review the connections between NER processing of UV-induced lesions and checkpoint activation, discussing the role of recently identified players in this mechanism.
Dynamic expression of the Robo ligand Slit2 in bone marrow cell populations
The bone marrow (BM) niche is essential for lifelong hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance, proliferation and differentiation. Several BM cell types, including osteoblast lineage cells (OBC), mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and endothelial cells (EC) have been implicated in supporting HSC location and function, but the relative importance of these cell types and their secreted ligands remain controversial. We recently found that the cell surface receptors Robo4 and CXCR4 cooperate to localize HSC to BM niches. We hypothesized that Slit2, a putative ligand for Robo4, cooperates with the CXCR4 ligand SDF1 to direct HSC to specific BM niche sites. Here, we have isolated OBC, MSC and EC by flow cytometry and determined their frequency within the bone marrow and the relative mRNA levels of Slit2, SDF1 and Robo4. We found that expression of Slit2 and SDF1 were dynamically regulated in MSC and OBC-like populations following radiation, while Robo4 expression was restricted to EC. Radiation also significantly affected the cellularity and frequency of both the non-adherent and adherent cells within the BM stroma. These data support a physiological role for Slit2 in regulating the dynamic function of Robo-expressing cells within BM niches at steady state and following radiation.
The emerging role of the TGFβ tumor suppressor pathway in pancreatic cancer
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the most aggressive human cancers. It displays many different chromosomal abnormalities and mutations. To design new therapeutic strategies, it is important to identify the signaling pathways and gene networks within this apparent complexity that are predominantly altered. The TGFβ signaling pathway and associated transcription network emerges as a central actor of pancreatic oncogenesis. Its tumor suppressor function in this tissue can be affected by several alterations.
BRCA1-directed, enhanced and aberrant homologous recombination: Mechanism and potential treatment strategies
Despite intense studies, questions still remain regarding the molecular mechanisms leading to the development of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. Research focused on elucidating the role of the breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) in the DNA damage response may be of the most critical importance to understanding these processes. The BRCA1 protein has an N-terminal RING domain possessing E3 ubiquitinligase activity and a C-terminal BRCT domain involved in binding specific phosphoproteins. These domains are involved directly or indirectly in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. As the two terminal domains of BRCA1 represent two separate entities, understanding how these domains communicate and are functionally altered in regards to DSB repair is critical for understanding the development of BRCA1-related breast and ovarian cancers and for developing novel therapeutics. Herein, we review recent findings of how altered functions of these domains might lead to cancer through a mechanism of increased aberrant homologous recombination and possible implications for the development of BRCA1 inhibitors.
Transient overexpression of cyclin D2/CDK4/GLP1 genes induces proliferation and differentiation of adult pancreatic progenitors and mediates islet regeneration
The molecular mechanism of β-cell regeneration remains poorly understood. Cyclin D2/CDK4 expresses in normal β cells and maintains adult β-cell growth. We hypothesized that gene therapy with cyclin D2/CDK4/GLP-1 plasmids targeted to the pancreas of STZ-treated rats by ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) would force cell cycle re-entry of residual G0-phase islet cells into G1/S phase to regenerate β cells. A single UTMD treatment induced β-cell regeneration with reversal of diabetes for 6 mo without evidence of toxicity. We observed that this β-cell regeneration was not mediated by self-replication of pre-existing β cells. Instead, cyclin D2/CDK4/GLP-1 initiated robust proliferation of adult pancreatic progenitor cells that exist within islets and terminally differentiate to mature islets with β cells and α cells.
ApoA1: Mimetic peptide reverses adipocyte dysfunction in vivo and in vitro via an increase in heme oxygenase (HO-1) and Wnt10b
Insulin resistance is a risk factor in the development of type 2 diabetes and is a major cause of atherosclerosis. Reduction in heme oxygenase (HO-1) has been shown to exacerbate vascular dysfunction and insulin resistance in obese mice and involves a decrease in adiponectin levels. Adiponectin is released from mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived adipocytes, its levels are decreased in type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that the apoA1 mimetic peptide, L-4F, will target the expression of the HO-1-adiponectin axis and reverse adipocyte dysfunction both in vivo and in vitro. The administration of L-4F [2 mg/Kg/daily (i.p.) for 4-week to 8-week-old obese (ob) mice restored adipocyte function, increased adiponectin release (p < 0.05) and decreased the levels of IL-1 and IL-6 (p < 0.05)]. These perturbations were associated with an increase in insulin sensitivity (p < 0.01 vs. untreated ob mice) and decreased glucose levels (309 + 42 vs. 201 + 8 mg/d after L-4F treatment). Treatment of both mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived adipocytes with L-4F (50 μg/ml) increased adiponectin (p < 0.05), decreased IL-1 and IL-6 (p < 0.05) levels and increased MSC-derived adipocyte cell numbers by 50% in S phase (p < 0.05). MSC-derived adipocytes treated with L-4F increased WNT10b and decreased Peg 1/Mest. Inhibition of HO activity reversed the decrease in the adipogenic response gene, Peg 1/Mest. An increase of HO-1 expression by L-4F increased insulin-receptor phosphorylation. These findings support the hypothesis that L-4F increases early adipocyte markers, HO-1-adiponectin, WNT10b and decreases Peg1/Mest, negative regulators of adipocyte differentiation.
EDD induces cell cycle arrest by increasing p53 levels
Tight regulation of p53 is essential for its central role in maintaining genome stability and tumor prevention. Here, EDD/ UBR5/hHyd, hereafter called EDD, is identified as a novel regulator of p53. Downregulation of EDD results in elevated p53 protein levels both in transformed and untransformed cells. Concomitant with a rise in p53, the levels of p21, a critical p53 target, are also elevated in these conditions. Surprisingly, EDD knockdown does not affect p53 protein stability, and p53 mRNA levels do not increase significantly upon EDD depletion. Consistent with the function of p53, EDD downregulation triggers a senescent phenotype in fibroblasts at later time points. In addition, the increased p53 levels upon EDD depletion cause a G1 arrest, as co-depletion of EDD and p53 completely rescues this effect on cell cycle progression.
Novel E3 ligase component FBXL7 ubiquitinates and degrades Aurora A, causing mitotic arrest
Aurora family kinases play pivotal roles in several steps during mitosis. Specifically, Aurora A kinase is an important regulator of bipolar mitotic spindle formation and chromosome segregation. Like other members of the Aurora family, Aurora A kinase is also regulated by post-translational modifications. Here, we show that a previously undescribed E3 ligase component belonging to the SCF (Skp-Cullin1-F-box protein) E3 ligase family, SCFFBXL7, impairs cell proliferation by mediating Aurora A polyubiquitination and degradation. Both Aurora A and FBXL7 co-localize within the centrosome during spindle formation. FBXL7 ectopic expression led to G2/M phase arrest in transformed epithelia, resulting in the appearance of tetraploidy and mitotic arrest with circular monopolar spindles and multipolar spindle formation. Interestingly, FBXL7 specifically interacts with Aurora A during mitosis but not in interphase, suggesting a regulatory role for FBXL7 in controlling Aurora A abundance during mitosis.
The STAT3-IGFBP5 axis is critical for IL-6/gp130-induced premature senescence in human fibroblasts
Cells undergo senescence in response to various conditions, including telomere erosion, oncogene activation and multiple cytokines. One of these cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL‑6), not only functions in the immune system, but also promotes cellular senescence and cancer. Here we demonstrate that IL‑6 and the soluble IL‑6 receptor (sIL‑6R) induce premature senescence in normal human fibroblasts by establishing a senescence-inducing circuit involving the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 (IGFBP5). Stimulating TIG3 fibroblast cells with IL‑6/sIL‑6R sequentially caused an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) as early as day 1, followed by the DNA damage response, p53 accumulation and, finally, senescence on days 8–10. We found that STAT3 was required for the events leading to senescence, including the initial early-phase ROS increase and the induction of IL‑1α/β, IL‑6 and CXCL8 mRNAs 4–5 d after IL‑6/sIL‑6R stimulation, suggesting that STAT3’s role is indirect. We searched for STAT3-downstream molecule(s) responsible for the senescence-inducing activity in the supernatants of stimulated TIG3 and identified IGFBP5 as a major STAT3 mediator, because IGFBP5 was expressed from the early phase through the entire senescence process and was responsible for IL‑6/STAT3-induced ROS increase and premature senescence. Thus, IL‑6/sIL‑6R forms a senescence-inducing circuit involving the STAT3-IGFBP5 axis as a key triggering and reinforcing component.
Expression profiles of cohesins, shugoshins and spindle assembly checkpoint genes in rhesus macaque oocytes predict their susceptibility for aneuploidy during embryonic development
High frequencies of chromosomal anomalies are reported in human and non-human primate in vitro-produced preimplantation embryos. It is unclear why certain embryos develop aneuploidies while others remain euploid. A differential susceptibility to aneuploidy is most likely a consequence of events that occur before oocyte collection. One hypothesis is that the relative transcript levels of cohesins, shugoshins and spindle assembly checkpoint genes are correlated with the occurrence of chromosomal anomalies. Transcript levels of these genes were quantified in individual oocytes that were either mature (group 1, low aneuploidy rate) or immature (group 2, high aneuploidy rate) at retrieval, utilizing TaqMan-based real-time PCR. The transcript level in each oocyte was categorized as absent, below the median or above the median in order to conduct comparisons. Statistically significant differences were observed between group 1 and group 2 for SGOL1 and BUB1. There were more oocytes with SGOL1 expression levels above the median in group 1, while oocytes lacking BUB1 were only observed in group 1. These findings suggest that higher SGOL1 levels in group 1 oocytes could better protect against a premature separation of sister chromatids than in embryos derived from group 2 oocytes. The absence of BUB1 transcripts in group 1 was frequently associated with reduced expression of either mitotic cohesins or shugoshins. We hypothesize that ablation of BUB1 could induce mitotic arrest in oocytes that fail to express a complete complement of cohesins and shugoshins, thereby reducing the number of developing aneuploid preimplantation embryos.
MDM4 enhances p53 stability by promoting an active conformation of the protein upon DNA damage
Stabilization of p53 protein is an important step in the activation of its function. p53 levels are regulated by ubiquitin-dependent and -independent degradation pathways. MDM4 (MDMX) is an important regulator of p53, able to both stimulate and antagonize p53 degradation. Both of these activities have been attributed to the ability of MDM4 to potentiate or antagonize the function of MDM2, the main ubiquitin ligase of p53, depending on their relative levels. Here, we have investigated the stabilizing function of endogenous MDM4 using genetic models of knockout MEFs and RNA interference in human non-transformed cell lines. Our data demonstrate that MDM4 is able to stabilize p53, protecting it from proteasome-mediated degradation in a MDM2- and ubiquitin-independent manner. Upon DNA damage, MDM4 is associated to p53 independently of MDM2 and promotes a conformational change of the protein toward an active form. This correlates with a decreased association of p53 to the proteasome and increased protein levels. The association between MDM4 and p53 is evidenced in the cytoplasmic compartment, supporting the role of cytoplasmic stabilization of p53 during its activation. This work demonstrates that the ability of MDM4 to enhance p53 stability is actually a specific property of MDM4 accomplished upon DNA damage. In addition, these data support the hypothesis of distinct functions of MDM4 under different growth conditions.
Mimosine arrests the cell cycle prior to the onset of DNA replication by preventing the binding of human Ctf4/And-1 to chromatin via Hif-1α activation in HeLa cells
Though the G1 checkpoint in mammalian cells has been known for decades, the molecular targets that prevent S-phase entry remain unknown. Mimosine is a rare plant amino acid that arrests the cell cycle in the G1 phase before entry into S phase. Here, we show that mimosine interrupts the binding of Ctf4 to chromatin, which is essential for the initiation of DNA replication in HeLa cells, and this effect is mediated by the Hif-1α-dependent increase in the level of p27. Depletion of Hif-1α results in an increased binding of Ctf4 to chromatin and the entry of cells into S phase even in the presence of mimosine. These results suggest that the binding of Ctf4 to chromatin is the target of the Hif-1α-dependent checkpoint pathway for cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. Although we observed Hif-1α-dependent arrest in mimosine-treated cells, it is possible that Ctf4 may act as a common target for G1 arrest in various other checkpoint pathways.
MicroRNA-143 is a critical regulator of cell cycle activity in stem cells with co-overexpression of Akt and angiopoietin-1 via transcriptional regulation of Erk5/cyclin D1 signaling
We report that simultaneous expression of Akt and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) transgenes supported mitogenesis in stem cells with a critical role for microRNA-143 (miR-143) downstream of FoxO1 transcription factor. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from young male rats were transduced with Ad-vectors encoding for Akt (AktMSC) and Ang-1 (Ang-1MSC) transgenes for their individual or simultaneous overexpression (AAMSC; > 5-fold gene level and > 4-fold Akt and Ang-1 protein expression in AAMSC vs. Ad-Empty transduced MSC; EmpMSC). AAMSC had higher phosphorylation of FoxO1, which activated Erk5, a distinct mitogen-induced MAPK that drove transcriptional activation of cyclin D1 and Cdk4. Flow cytometry showed > 10% higher S-phase cell population that was confirmed by BrdU assay (15%) and immunohistology for Ki67 (11%) in AAMSC using EmpMSC as controls. miR array supported by real-time PCR showed induction of miR-143 in AAMSC (4.73-fold vs.. EmpMSC). Luciferase assay indicated a dependent relationship between miR-143 and Erk5 in AAMSC. FoxO1-specific siRNA upregulated miR-143, whereas inhibition of miR-143 did not change FoxO1 activation. However, miR-143 inhibition repressed phosphorylation of Erk5 and abrogated cyclin D1 with concomitant reduction in cells entering cell cycle. During in vivo studies, male GFP+ AAMSC transplanted into wild-type female infarcted rat hearts showed significantly higher number of Ki67 expressing cells (p < 0.05 vs. EmpMSC) 7 days after engraftment (n = 4 animals/group). In conclusion, co-overexpression of Akt and Ang-1 in MSC activated cell cycle progression by upregulation of miR-143 and stimulation of FoxO1 and Erk5 signaling.
Inactivation of Pmc1 vacuolar Ca2+ ATPase causes G2 cell cycle delay in Hansenula polymorpha
The vacuolar Ca2+ ATPase Pmc1 is involved in maintenance of a low Ca2+ concentration in cytosol in yeast cells. Here we observed that increase of Ca2+ cytosolic concentration in yeast Hansenula polymorpha due to inactivation of Pmc1 resulted in sensitivity to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). To elucidate the mechanisms of the observed effect, a screening for mutations suppressing SDS sensitivity of the H. polymorphapmc1 mutant was performed. As a result, three genes were identified. Two of them, designated as their Saccharomyces cerevisiae orthologs CCH1 and HOG1 encoded the plasma membrane voltage-gated high-affinity calcium channel and the MAP kinase involved in osmoregulation, respectively. The third gene, designated as WEE1, coded for the ortholog of Wee1/Swe1 kinase involved in cell cycle regulation by inhibiting of the G2/M transition. Detailed analysis of this mutant demonstrated that suppression of pmc1 SDS sensitivity by the wee1 mutation depended on an accompanying chromosomal rearrangement, whereas inactivation of WEE1 in the absence of this rearrangement caused SDS sensitivity. Expression of a chimeric protein containing an N-terminal portion of Wee1 in the pmc1 mutant led to abnormal morphology characteristic of G2 delay. Our data indicate that cytosolic Ca2+ rise causes SDS sensitivity in H. polymorpha through the activation of the Wee1 kinase, which is mediated by the Hog1 kinase. Wee1 has a dual role in the manifestation of SDS sensitivity in the H. polymorpha pmc1 mutant. Mechanisms of influence of the obtained mutations on the G2/M transition are discussed.
MiR-205 determines the radioresistance of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma by directly targeting PTEN
Radiotherapy is the primary treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), but radioresistance severely reduces NPC radiocurability. Here, we have established a radio-resistant NPC cell line, CNE-2R, and investigate the role of miRNAs in radioresistance. The miRNAs microarray assay reveals that miRNAs are differentially expressed between CNE-2R and its parental cell line CNE-2. We find that miR-205 is elevated in CNE-2R. A target prediction algorithm suggests that miR‑205 regulates expression of PTE N, a tumor-suppressor. Introducing miR-205 into CNE-2 cells suppresses PTE N protein expression, followed by activation of AKT, increased number of foci formation and reduction of cell apoptosis postirradiation. On the other hand, knocking down miR-205 in CNE-2R cells compromises the inhibition of PTE N and increases cell apoptosis. Significantly, immunohistochemistry studies demonstrate that PTE N is downregulated at late stages of NPC, and that miR-205 is significantly elevated followed the radiotherapy. Our data conclude that miR-205 contributes to radioresistance of NPC by directly targeting PTE N. Both miR-205 and PTE N are potential predictive biomarkers for radiosensitivity of NPC and may serve as targets for achieve successful radiotherapy in NPC.
Sumoylated BubR1 plays an important role in chromosome segregation and mitotic timing
BubR1 is an important component of the spindle assembly checkpoint, and deregulated BubR1 functions frequently result in chromosomal instability and malignant transformation. We recently demonstrated that BubR1 was modified by sumoylation, and that lysine 250 (K250) functions as the crucial site for this modification. BubR1 sumoylation was neither required for its activation nor for binding to kinetochores. However, ectopically expressed sumoylation-deficient BubR1 mutants were retained on the kintochores even after apparent chromosome congression. The kinetochore retention of the sumoylation-deficient mutant of BubR1 caused an anaphase delay coupled with premature sister chromatid separation. Moreover, BubR1 interacted with unphosphorylated Sgo1, and its sumoylation facilitated the interaction. BubR1 sumoylation was inversely associated with its acetylation during mitotic progression. Trichostatin A, a protein deacetylase inhibitor, significantly compromised BubR1 sumoylation. Combined, these results reveal that BubR1 sumoylation plays an important role in its timely removal from the kinetochores and the checkpoint inactivation, thus allowing normal anaphase entry and chromosome segregation.
The induction of polyploidy or apoptosis by the Aurora A kinase inhibitor MK8745 is p53-dependent
Aurora kinases are mitotic serine/threonine protein kinases and are attractive novel targets for anticancer therapy. Many small-molecule inhibitors of Aurora kinases are currently undergoing clinical trials. Aurora A kinase is essential for successful mitotic transition. MK8745 is a novel and selective small-molecule inhibitor of Aurora A kinase. MK8745 induced apoptotic cell death in a p53-dependent manner when tested in vitro in cell lines of multiple lineages. Cells expressing wild-type p53 showed a short delay in mitosis followed by cytokinesis, resulting in 2N cells along with apoptosis. However, cells lacking or with mutant p53 resulted in a prolonged arrest in mitosis followed by endoreduplication and polyploidy. Cytokinesis was completely inhibited in p53-deficient cells, as observed by the absence of 2N cell population. The induction of apoptosis in p53-proficient cells was associated with activation of caspase 3 and release of cytochrome c but was independent of p21. Exposure of p53 wild-type cells to MK8745 resulted in the induction of p53 phosphorylation (ser15) and an increase in p53 protein expression. p53-dependent apoptosis by MK8745 was further confirmed in HCT 116 p53-/- cells transfected with wild-type p53. Transient knockdown of Aurora A by specific siRNA recapitulated these p53- dependent effects, with greater percent induction of apoptosis in p53 wild-type cells. In conclusion, our studies show p53 as a determining factor for induction of apoptosis vs. polyploidy upon inhibition of Aurora A.
Synaptotagmin1 is required for spindle stability and metaphase-to-anaphase transition in mouse oocytes
Synaptotagmin1, a calcium sensor for exocytosis, forms the 7S complex, or so-called SNARE protein complex, together with SNAP -25, syntaxin and synaptobrevin to mediate docking and fusion of synaptic vesicles to the plasma membrane of the nerve terminal. Here, we identified the unique localization, expression and function of Syt1 during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation by using confocal microscopy, western blotting, Morpholino-based knockdown and time-lapse live cell imaging. We showed that Syt1 expression was gradually increased during oocyte maturation. Syt1 was localized at the oocyte cortex from GV to MII stages and at the spindle poles in MI and MII phases, with one third of a signal-free zone at the oocyte cortex, where the chromosomes are located, which is similar to the distribution pattern of CGs from the pro-MI to MII stages. Knockdown of Syt1 resulted in pro-MI/MI arrest and PB1 extrusion decrease, with severely disrupted spindles and misaligned chromosomes. Knockdown of Syt1 also caused abnormal localization of γ-tubulin, which became redistributed into the cytoplasm. Chromosome spreading showed failure of homologous chromosome segregation. The spindle assembly checkpoint protein Bub3 was detected at the kinetochores even after 10 h of oocyte culture. Live cell imaging analysis revealed that knockdown of Syt1 resulted in abnormal spindles with various morphologies and chromosomes arrested at the pro-MI/MI stage. Defective spindles failed to support chromosome alignment along microtubules, which led to repetitive unsuccessful metaphase-anaphase transitions and failure of PB1 extrusion after extended culture. Taken together, we suggest that Syt1 may act as a MTOC-associated protein to play important roles in mouse oocyte spindle organization/stability, and that it is indispensable for the metaphase-anaphase transition to promote mouse oocyte meiotic maturation.