Cytoplasmic sumoylation by PIAS-type Siz1-SUMO ligase
Volume 7, Issue 12
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June 15, 2008
Pages 1738 - 1744http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/cc.7.12.6156
Authors: Yoshimitsu Takahashi and Yoshiko Kikuchi View affiliations
SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier), a 12 kDa protein with distant similarity to ubiquitin, covalently binds to many proteins in eukaryotic cells. In contrast to ubiquitination, which mainly regulates proteasome-dependent degradation and protein sorting, sumoylation is known to regulate assembly and disassembly of protein complexes, protein localization and stability, and so on. SUMO is primarily localized to the nucleus, and many SUMO substrates are nuclear proteins involved in DNA transaction. However, certain roles of SUMO conjugates have been shown outside the nucleus. Particularly in budding yeast, SUMO is also localized to the bud-neck in a cell cycle-dependent manner. The first and prominent SUMO substrates are septins, evolutionally conserved proteins required for cytokinesis in yeast. Recent analysis of human septin structure would greatly facilitate the study of the functions of these SUMO conjugates. SUMO modification of septins is regulated by cell cycle-dependent nuclear transport of PIAS-type Siz1 (SUMO E3) and Ulp1 desumoylation enzyme in yeast. Domains outside the SUMO-ligase core (SP-RING) of Siz1 ensure its regulations. Furthermore, newly discovered ubiquitin ligases that specifically recognize poly-SUMO conjugates could lead to degradation of SUMO conjugates. Thus, protein modifications seem to be regulated in an unexpectedly complex manner. In this review, we focus on various regulations in yeast septin sumoylation and discuss its possible functions.