Toll-like receptors, signaling adapters and regulation of the pro-inflammatory response by PI3K
Volume 11, Issue 19
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October 1, 2012
Pages 3559 - 3567http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/cc.21572
: BCAP, PI3K, inflammation, macrophage, toll-like receptor
Authors: Ty Dale Troutman, J. Fernando Bazan and Chandrashekhar Pasare View affiliations
TLRs are a family of pattern recognition receptors that recognize conserved molecular structures/products from a wide variety of microbes. Following recognition of ligands, TLRs recruit signaling adapters to initiate a pro-inflammatory signaling cascade culminating in the activation of several transcription factor families. Additionally, TLR signals lead to activation of PI3K, affecting many aspects of the cellular response, including cell survival, proliferation and regulation of the pro-inflammatory response. The recent discovery of BCAP as a TLR signaling adaptor, crucial for linking TLRs to PI3K activation, allows new questions of the importance of PI3K activation downstream of TLRs. Here, we summarize the current understanding of signaling pathways activated by TLRs and provide our perspective on TLR mediated activation of PI3K and its impact on regulating cellular processes.
Received: July 5, 2012; Accepted: July 21, 2012; Published Online: August 16, 2012
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