Cistrome plasticity and mechanisms of cistrome reprogramming
Volume 11, Issue 17
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September 1, 2012
Pages 3199 - 3210http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/cc.21281
: ChIP-chip/seq, cancer development and progression, cis-regulatory element, cistrome, cistrome reprogramming, transcription factor, transcription reprogramming, transcriptome
Authors: Ivan Garcia-Bassets and Dong Wang View affiliations
Mammalian genomes contain thousands of cis-regulatory elements for each transcription factor (TF), but TFs only occupy a relatively small subset referred to as cistrome. Recent studies demonstrate that a TF cistrome might differ among different organisms, tissue types and individuals. In a cell, a TF cistrome might differ among different physiological states, pathological stages and between physiological and pathological conditions. It is, therefore, remarkable how highly plastic these binding profiles are, and how massively they can be reprogrammed in rapid response to intra/extracellular variations and during cell identity transitions and evolution. Biologically, cistrome reprogramming events tend to be followed by changes in transcriptional outputs, thus serving as transformative mechanisms to synchronically alter the biology of the cell. In this review, we discuss the molecular basis of cistrome plasticity and attempt to integrate the different mechanisms and biological conditions associated with cistrome reprogramming. Emerging data suggest that, when altered, these reprogramming events might be linked to tumor development and/or progression, which is a radical conceptual change in our mechanistic understanding of cancer and, potentially, other diseases.
Received: June 11, 2012; Accepted: June 26, 2012; Published Online: August 16, 2012
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