Coordinated effects of microRNA-494 induce G₂/M arrest in human cholangiocarcinoma
Volume 11, Issue 14
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July 15, 2012
Pages 2729 - 2738http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/cc.21105
/M arrest, cholangiocarcinoma, global regulation, miR-494
Authors: Sumitaka Yamanaka, Nathaniel R. Campbell, Fangmei An, Scot C. Kuo, James J. Potter, Esteban Mezey, Anirban Maitra and Florin M. Selaru View affiliations
MicroRNA (miRs) have emerged as salient regulators in cancer homeostasis and, recently, as putative therapeutics. Cholangiocarcinomas (CCA) are aggressive cancers with survival usually measured in months. mRNA arrays followed by pathway analysis revealed that miR-494 is a major modulator of the cell cycle progression from gap 2 (G₂) to mitosis (M). We performed fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) as well as differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, and confirmed that miR-494 induces a significant arrest in G₂/M in CCA cells. Furthermore, we verified that miR-494 modulates the protein level of six genes involved in the G₂/M transition: Polo-like Kinase 1 (PLK1), pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1), Cyclin B1 (CCNB1), cell-division cycle 2 (CDC2), cell-division cycle 20 (CDC20) and topoisomerase II α (TOP2A). Next, we identified direct binding of miR-494 to the open reading frame (ORF) and downregulation of PTTG1 and TOP2A. In summary, our findings suggest that miR-494 has a global regulatory role in cell cycle progression, exerted by concerted effects on multiple proteins involved in gap 1 (G₁) to synthesis (S), as described previously, as well as G₂ to M progression. Therefore, it appears that the simultaneous effects of a single miR species on multiple targets along the same canonical pathway is advantageous for the usage of miRs as therapeutics. In addition, our data suggest that miRs act within a narrow range. miR expression above the upper threshold does not appear to induce further effects, which is reassuring in terms of off-target effects of miR surrounding noncancerous tissue.
Received: April 12, 2012; Accepted: June 12, 2012
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