miR-34 and SNAIL form a double-negative feedback loop to regulate epithelial-mesenchymal transitions
Volume 10, Issue 24
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December 15, 2011
Pages 4256 - 4271http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/cc.10.24.18552
Authors: Helge Siemens, Rene Jackstadt, Sabine Hünten, Markus Kaller, Antje Menssen, Ursula Götz and Heiko Hermeking View affiliations
Recently, the inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) by p53 has been described as a new mode of tumor suppression which presumably prevents metastasis. Here we report that activation of p53 down-regulates the EMT-inducing transcription factor SNAIL via induction of the miR-34a/b/c genes. Suppression of miR-34a/b/c caused up-regulation of SNAIL and cells displayed EMT markers and related features, as enhanced migration and invasion. Ectopic miR-34a induced mesenchymal-epithelial-transition (MET) and down-regulation of SNAIL, which was mediated by a conserved miR-34a/b/c seed-matching sequence in the SNAIL 3’-UTR. miR-34a also down-regulated SLUG and ZEB1, as well as the stemness factors BMI1, CD44, CD133, OLFM4 and c-MYC. Conversely, the transcription factors SNAIL and ZEB1 bound to E-boxes in the miR-34a/b/c promoters, thereby repressing miR-34a and miR-34b/c expression. Since ectopic miR-34a prevented TGF-β-induced EMT, the repression of miR-34 genes by SNAIL and related factors is part of the EMT program. In conclusion, the frequent inactivation of p53 and/or miR-34a/b/c found in cancer may shift the equilibrium of these reciprocal regulations towards the mesenchymal state and thereby lock cells in a metastatic state.
Received: October 25, 2011; Accepted: October 27, 2011