Hdm2- and proteasome-dependent turnover limits p21 accumulation during S phase
Volume 10, Issue 16
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August 15, 2011
Pages 2714 - 2723http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/cc.10.16.16725
Authors: Daniel Ciznadija, Xin-Hua Zhu and Andrew Koff View affiliations
Double-strand DNA breaks detected in different phases of the cell cycle induce molecularly distinct checkpoints downstream of the ATM kinase. p53 is known to induce arrest of cells in G1 and occasionally G2 phase but not S phase following ionizing radiation, a time at which the MRN complex and cdc25-dependent mechanisms induce arrest. Our understanding of how cell cycle phase modulates pathway choice and the reasons certain pathways might be favored at different times is limited. In this report, we examined how cell cycle phase affects the activation of the p53 checkpoint and its ability to induce accumulation of the cdk2 inhibitor p21. Using flow cytometric tools and centrifugal elutriation, we found that the p53 response to ionizing radiation is largely intact in all phases of the cell cycle; however, the accumulation of p21 protein is limited to the G1 and G2 phase of the cell cycle because of the activity of a proteasome-dependent p21 turnover pathway in S-phase cells. We found that the turnover of p21 was independent of the SCFskp2 E3 ligase but could be inhibited, at least in part, by reducing hdm2, although this depended on the cell type studied. Our results suggest that there are several redundant pathways active in S-phase cells that can prevent the accumulation of p21.
Received: May 27, 2011; Accepted: June 9, 2011