Kinetic profiling of the c-Myc transcriptome and bioinformatic analysis of repressed gene promoters
Volume 10, Issue 13
Downloads and Tools
July 1, 2011
Pages 2184 - 2196http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/cc.10.13.16249
Authors: Chui-Sun Yap, Abigail L. Peterson, Gastone Castellani, John M. Sedivy and Nicola Neretti View affiliations
Mammalian c-Myc is a member of a small family of three related proto-oncogenic transcription factors. c-Myc has an unusually broad array of regulatory functions, which include roles in cell cycle and apoptosis, a variety of metabolic functions, cell differentiation, senescence, and stem cell maintenance. c-Myc modulates the expression of a very large number of genes, but the magnitude of the majority of the regulatory effects is only 2-fold or less. c-Myc can both activate and repress the promoters of its target genes. Identification of genes directly regulated by c-Myc has been an enduring question in the field. We report here microarray expression profiling of a high resolution time course of c-Myc induction, using fibroblast cells in which c-Myc activity can be modulated from null to physiological. The c-Myc transcriptome dataset presented is the largest reported to date with 4,186 differentially regulated genes (1,826 upregulated, 2,360 downregulated, 1% FDR). The gene expression patterns fit well with the known biological functions of c-Myc. We describe several novel findings and present tools for further data mining. Although the mechanisms of transcriptional activation by c-Myc are well understood, how c-Myc represses an even greater number of genes remains incompletely described. One mechanism involves the binding of c-Myc to other, positively acting transcription factors, and interfering with their activities. We identified rapid-response genes likely to be direct c-Myc targets, and analyzed the promoters of the repressed genes to identify transcription factors that could be targets of c-Myc repression.