DNA Repair in the Context of Chromatin
Volume 4, Issue 4
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Authors: Ashby J. Morrison and Xuetong Shen View affiliations
Modulation of chromatin is essential to nuclear processes that utilize DNA, such as transcription, replication, and repair. For example, transcription is assisted by histone post-translational modifications, as well as chromatin-remodeling complexes, which alter the structure of chromatin. Furthermore, recent advancements in the fields of DNA repair and chromatin reveal that both histone modifications and chromatin-remodeling complexes are essential for the repair of DNA lesions. In particular, chromatin-modifying complexes, such as the INO80 chromatin-remodeling complex and the Tip60 histone acetyltransferase complex, associate with the DNA damage-induced phosphorylated H2AX, which is often referred to as ?-H2AX. In S. cerevisiae, the association of INO80 with ?-H2AX is required for the recruitment of INO80 to sites of DNA double-strand breaks. Additionally, in Drosophila, Tip60 exchanges ?-H2AX for unmodified H2A in regions of DNA damage. This report reviews recent studies that emphasize the intimate relationship between evolutionarily-conserved chromatin-modifying complexes and histone post-translational modifications in the repair of DNA damage.