Multi-Kinase Phosphorylation of the APC/C Activator Cdh1 Revealed by Mass Spectrometry
Volume 3, Issue 10
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Pages 1278 - 1284http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/cc.3.10.1153
Authors: Mark C. Hall, Erin N. Warren and Christoph H. Borchers View affiliations
by activating a large ubiquitin ligase called the anaphase-promoting complex, or cyclosome (APC/C). At the end of G1, APC/CCdh1 is inhibited by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) phosphorylation of Cdh1. The specific Cdh1 phosphorylation sites used to regulate APC/CCdh1 activity have not been directly identified. Here, we used a mass spectrometric approach to identify the in vivo phosphorylation sites on yeast Cdh1. Surprisingly, in addition to several expected CDK phosphorylation sites, we discovered numerous non-CDK phosphorylation sites. In total, at least 19 serine and threonine residues on Cdh1 are phosphorylated in vivo. Seventeen of these sites are located in the N-terminal half of Cdh1, outside the highly conserved WD40 repeats. The pattern of phosphorylation was the same when Cdh1 was purified from yeast cultures arrested in S, early M and late M. Mutation of CDK consensus sequences eliminated detectable phosphorylation at many of the non-CDK sites. In contrast, mutation of non-CDK sites had no significant effect on CDK phosphorylation. We conclude that phosphorylation of CDK sites promotes the subsequent recognition of Cdh1 by at least one additional kinase. The function of non-CDK phosphorylation may differ from CDK phosphorylation because mutation of non-CDK sites did not result in constitutive activation of APC and consequent cell cycle arrest. These results suggest that phosphoregulation of APC/CCdh1 activity is much more complex than previously thought.