Phylogenetic structure and evolution of regulatory genes and integrases of P2-like phages
Volume 1, Issue 4
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July - December 2011
Pages 207 - 218http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/bact.1.4.18470
: P2-like bacteriophages, gamma-proteobacteria, lytic-lysogenic transcriptional switch, peduovirinae, phage integration, phylogenetic analysis
Authors: Hanna Nilsson, Carlos Cardoso-Palacios, Elisabeth Haggård-Ljungquist and Anders S. Nilsson View affiliations
The phylogenetic relationships and structural similarities of the proteins encoded within the regulatory region (containing the integrase gene and the lytic–lysogenic transcriptional switch genes) of P2-like phages were analyzed, and compared with the phylogenetic relationship of P2-like phages inferred from four structural genes. P2-like phages are thought to be one of the most genetically homogenous phage groups but the regulatory region nevertheless varies extensively between different phage genomes.
The analyses showed that there are many types of regulatory regions, but two types can be clearly distinguished; regions similar either to the phage P2 or to the phage 186 regulatory regions. These regions were also found to be most frequent among the sequenced P2-like phage or prophage genomes, and common in phages using Escherichia coli as a host. Both the phylogenetic and the structural analyses showed that these two regions are related. The integrases as well as the cox/apl genes show a common monophyletic origin but the immunity repressor genes, the type P2 C gene and the type 186 cI gene, are likely of different origin. There was no indication of recombination between the P2–186 types of regulatory genes but the comparison of the phylogenies of the regulatory region with the phylogeny based on four structural genes revealed recombinational events between the regulatory region and the structural genes.
Less common regulatory regions were phylogenetically heterogeneous and typically contained a fusion of genes from distantly related or unknown phages and P2-like genes.
Received: August 10, 2011; Accepted: October 19, 2011