Basic Research Paper
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus induces autophagy to promote virus replication
Volume 8, Issue 10
Purchase or Subscribe
Pages 1434 - 1447http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/auto.21159
: autophagosomes, autophagy, fusion, lysosomes, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, replication
Authors: Ming-Xia Sun, Li Huang, Rui Wang, Ya-Ling Yu, Chen Li, Peng-Peng Li, Xiao-Chun Hu, Hong-Ping Hao, Hassan A. Ishag and Xiang Mao View affiliations
An increasing number of studies demonstrate that autophagy, an intrinsic mechanism that can degrade cytoplasmic components, is involved in the infection processes of a variety of pathogens. It can be hijacked by various viruses to facilitate their replication. In this study, we found that PRRSV infection significantly increases the number of double- or single-membrane vesicles in the cytoplasm of host cells in ultrastructural analysis. Our results showed the LC3-I was converted into LC3-II after virus infection, suggesting the autophagy machinery was activated. We further used pharmacological agents and shRNAs to confirm that autophagy promoted the replication of PRRSV in host cells. Confocal microscopy analysis showed that PRRSV inhibited the fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes, suggesting that PRRSV induced incomplete autophagy. This suppression caused the accumulation of autophagosomes which may serve as replication site to enhance PRRSV replication. It has been shown that NSP2 and NSP3 of arterivirus are two components of virus replication complex. We also found in our studies that NSP2 colocalized with LC3 in MARC-145 cells by performing confocal microscopy analysis and continuous density gradient centrifugation. Our studies presented here indicated that autophagy was activated during PRRSV infection and enhanced PRRSV replication in host cells by preventing autophagosome and lysosome fusion.
Received: July 25, 2011; Accepted: June 18, 2012; Published Online: June 28, 2012
Full Text - Ahead of Print Available - Log in!