Crohn disease ATG16L1 polymorphism increases susceptibility to infection with Helicobacter pylori in humans
Volume 8, Issue 9
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Pages 1387 - 1388http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/auto.21007
, gastric cancer
Authors: Deepa Raju, Séamus Hussey and Nicola L. Jones View affiliations
Autophagy plays key roles both in host defense against bacterial infection and in tumor biology. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection causes chronic gastritis and is the single most important risk factor for the development of gastric cancer in humans. Its vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) promotes gastric colonization and is associated with more severe disease. Acute exposure to VacA initially triggers host autophagy to mitigate the effects of the toxin in epithelial cells. Recently, we demonstrated that chronic exposure to VacA leads to the formation of defective autophagosomes that lack CTSD/cathepsin D and have reduced catalytic activity. Disrupted autophagy results in accumulation of reactive oxygen species and SQSTM1/p62 both in vitro and in vivo in biopsy samples from patients infected with VacA+ but not VacA- strains. We also determined that the Crohn disease susceptibility polymorphism in the essential autophagy gene ATG16L1 increases susceptibility to H. pylori infection. Furthermore, peripheral blood monocytes from individuals with the ATG16L1 risk variant show impaired autophagic responses to VacA exposure. This is the first study to identify both a host autophagy susceptibility gene for H. pylori infection and to define the mechanism by which the autophagy pathway is affected following H. pylori infection. Collectively, these findings highlight the synergistic effects of host and bacterial autophagy factors on H. pylori pathogenesis and the potential for subsequent cancer susceptibility.
Autophagic Punctum to:
D Raju, S Hussey, M Ang, MR Terebiznik, M Sibony, E Galindo-Mata, et al. Vacuolating cytotoxin and variants in Atg16L1 that disrupt autophagy promote Helicobacter pylori infection in humans. Gastroenterology 2012; 142: 1160-71
PMID: 22333951 DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2012.01.043
Received: May 28, 2012; Accepted: June 5, 2012; Published Online: August 13, 2012
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