Editorial Policies

When a manuscript is submitted, the Editors assume that no similar paper has been or will be submitted for publication elsewhere. Further, it is understood that all authors listed on a manuscript have agreed to its submission.

Upon acceptance, authors must sign a License to Publish. Should the authors choose to make their paper freely available, then an Open Access License Agreement must be signed and will replace the License to Publish (please see the Landes Bioscience Open Access Policy for further details).

Manuscripts should conform to the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URMSBJ), which can be found in full at www.icmje.org. This is in addition to their need to conform to our general guidelines about layout, etc. In particular, the attention of authors is drawn to the following conditions (which are extracted from the URMSBJ):

Authorship (Informed Consent)
Authorship credit should be based on 1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or reviewing/revising it critically for important intellectual content and 3) final approval of the version to be published. Each author should meet all three of these criteria. Acquisition of funding, or general supervision of a research group, are not valid criteria for authorship. Individuals who have a lesser involvement should be thanked in the acknowledgements. If meeting these requirements causes problems for a particular manuscript, authors are encouraged to contact the Editor-in-Chief for advice on alternative ways other contributors can be listed.

Acknowledgment of Funding
Authors should list all sources of funding for the research described in a manuscript in the 'Acknowledgments' section.

Conflict of Interest
Potential conflicts of interest exist when an author or reviewer has financial or personal interests in a publication that might, in principle, influence their scientific judgment. Financial interests include, but are not limited to, stock-holding, consultancy, paid expert testimony and honoraria; they also include any limitations on freedom to publish that are imposed on an author by an employer or funding agency. In order to encourage transparency without impeding publication, authors are required to include a statement at the end of a manuscript that lists all potential financial interests or, if appropriate, that clearly states that there are none. Possible conflicts of interest of a personal nature should also be communicated to the Editor-in-Chief, who will discuss with the author whether these ought to be listed. Peer reviewers are also required to inform the Editor-in-Chief of any potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

Ethical Statements
If a study involves any ethical issues, which include patient confidentiality and treatment of animals, the paper must be accompanied by a statement to the effect that the authors complied with all of the legal requirements pertaining to the location(s) in which the work was done.
Indicate whether the procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee of Human Experimentation in your country, or are in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975.

Duplicate or redundant publication
We only publish original manuscripts that are not also published or going to be published elsewhere. Duplicate publications, or redundant publications (re-packaging in different words of data already published by the same authors) will be rejected. If detected after publication, the Editor reserves the right to publish a notice of the fact without requiring the authors' approval. Competing manuscripts on the same study, for example by collaborators who have split into rival teams after the data were gathered, are acceptable only under special circumstances: please contact the Editor-in-Chief for advice.

Plagiarism and other fraud
If the Editor has reason to suspect that a manuscript is plagiarized or fraudulent, he or she reserves the right to bring his concerns to the authors' sponsoring institution and any other relevant bodies.
Upon submission, all manuscripts go through a rigorous quality control check that includes evaluation by iThenticate to identify any previously published phrases. Authors should pay particular attention to the originality of their work.

Limits to freedom of expression
We are committed to academic freedom. It does, however, have to operate within the laws of the USA, where it is published. Although a liberal democracy that is committed to academic freedom, it does have certain legal restrictions on the publication of specific types of material (for example, defamation of character, incitement to racial hatred, material intended to aid terrorism, etc.). In the unlikely event that a manuscript contains material that contravenes these restrictions, the journal reserves the right to request that the material is removed from the manuscript or that the manuscript is withdrawn. In any case, the journal requires authors to take full legal responsibility for what they have written.

Landes Bioscience uses iThenticate to screen for plagiarism before publication. The iThenticate software checks submissions against millions of published research papers, documents on the web, and other relevant sources. Authors, researchers and freelancers can also use the iThenticate system to screen their work before submission by visiting iThenticate.

Availability of Materials and Data

It is expected that authors should be able to provide any materials and/or protocols used in published experiments to other qualified researchers for their own use. Materials include (but are not limited to): cells DNA, antibodies, reagents, organisms, mouse strains, and Drosophila strains. These should be made available in a timely manner and it is acceptable to request reasonable payment to cover the cost of maintenance and transport.

For materials such as mutant strains and cell lines, authors should use established public repositories and provide relevant accession numbers wherever possible.

Repositories include:

Papers reporting protein or DNA sequences and molecular structures should provide an accession number to any of the three major collaborative databases: DDBJ, EMBL or GenBank. It is only necessary to submit to one database as data are exchanged between DDBJ, EMBL and GenBank on a daily basis. The suggested wording for referring to accession-number information is: 'These sequence data have been submitted to the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases under accession number U12345.'


ORCID is an open, non-profit, community-driven effort to create and maintain a registry of unique researcher identifiers and a transparent method of linking research activities and outputs to these identifiers. ORCID is unique in its ability to reach across disciplines, research sectors and national boundaries. It is a hub that connects researchers and research through the embedding of ORCID identifiers in key workflows, such as research profile maintenance, manuscript submissions, grant applications, and patent applications.

ORCID provides two core functions: (1) a registry to obtain a unique identifier and manage a record of activities, and (2) APIs that support system-to-system communication and authentication. ORCID makes its code available under an open source license, and will post an annual public data file under a CC0 waiver for free download.

For more information about ORCID, please visit: orcid.org.

Peer Review

Each contribution is typically vetted by at least two expert reviewers who are either members of the Editorial Board or are recruited by Board members.

For original articles or short reports, reviewers will generally be asked to comment on the following aspects of the submitted manuscripts:

  • significance to the field
  • study of data
  • quality of data
  • quality of controls
  • whether conclusions are justified
  • whether the effects are meaningful
  • whether the study is described clearly
  • the novelty of the work

If the reviewers believe the paper is potentially acceptable, but could be improved, specific suggestions will be made for improvement.

Final acceptance of all submitted manuscripts is a decision made by the Editor(s) in consultation with the Editorial Board and reviewers. If a manuscript does not meet the standards of the journal or is otherwise lacking in scientific rigor or contains major deficiencies, the reviewers will attempt to provide constructive criticism to assist the authors in ultimately improving their work for publication, here or elsewhere. Manuscripts not invited for resubmission will not be reconsidered.

If a manuscript receives favorable reviews but is not accepted outright following the initial review, it may be invited for reconsideration with the expectation that the authors will fully address the reviewer’s criticisms. Resubmitted manuscripts with major revisions will be sent back for peer review.

Accepted papers will be rapidly posted to the journal website as an E-publication (ahead of print).

Author Self-Archiving

Authors are entitled to deposit a final version of their manuscript in their institution's repository immediately upon publication. Again, we only require that a link to the published version at the journal's website is included, along with attribution to the journal as the original source (with full citation details).

Corrections and Retractions

All formal notices of correction, retraction, and expressions of concern are published as separate article entries that contain citation information and/or directly link back to the original publication to which they apply. They are automatically designated as readily available online to the public without charge. If a title is published in print, the notification will also be included in the corresponding print version of a journal.

Landes Bioscience strives to follow the standards and guidelines set by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

Corrections should be brought to the attention of the Managing Editor and/or Editor-in-Chief of the specific journal title for resolution. Significant errors that may impact the understanding of the science or incorrect elements that may effect the citation of the publication (i.e., misspelling of an author’s name) are grounds for formal correction. These include significant errors resulting from mistakes introduced by publishing staff during the production and editing process of an article or notification of errors in scientific logic, methodology and/or omissions by authorship. Note, a formal correction will not be published for basic grammatical or typographical errors.

Retractions and Expressions of Concern
If the integrity of a publication is brought into question, concerns should be brought to the attention of the Editor-in-Chief.

In the unlikely event that potential error in scientific logic or methodology invalidates the results of an entire body of work, a partial or full retraction of the article, may be published. In these instances, were authors voluntarily elect to retract their own work, circumstances are addressed between the authorship and Editor-in-Chief.

Retraction of an article may also be issued on confirmed instances of scientific fraud related to plagiarism, fraudulent data usage, invalid claims of authorship, or breaches in professional codes of ethics. If the grounds for retraction are confirmed by the author(s) institution(s) or funding agency related to the work, a formal retraction will be published. If an investigation into scientific fraud does not reach a satisfactory conclusion and validity remains uncertain or if the investigation appears to be drawn out over an extended period of time (without a foreseen date of closure), an “Expression of Concern” regarding the validity of the original publication may be published.

General reader feedback and criticisms
Readers are encouraged to submit feedback to the Editor-in-Chief that supports,challenges, and/or elaborates upon previous publications. The Editor-in-Chief may consult with the original authorship of a publication or seek the advice of peer-reviewers to determine an appropriate response in cases where significant errors are noted.

If the feedback is of significant interest, it may be considered for publication as a “Letter to the Editor” at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief. In these cases, the original authorship of a publication may be given the chance to respond to the feedback in a published “Reply to” or “Response to” article.

Open Access Policy

Landes Bioscience recognizes that an increasing number of research-funding agencies require agency-funded research be deposited in public repositories. It is our mission to help authors comply with their institutions and funding agencies.

Landes Bioscience Open Access License Agreement
Once a manuscript has been accepted for publication, authors may let the Managing Editor know that they wish to purchase open access for their paper. Otherwise, all authors will receive an order form with their galley proofs.

Open Access prices vary based on the type of paper and the desired Creative Commons license you wish to use. A description of the licenses that we work with is here:

  • CC-BY-NC: Anyone may copy, distribute, transmit, or adapt the work as long as the work is attributed (properly cited). This work may not be used for commercial purposes.
  • CC-BY: Anyone may copy, distribute, transmit, adapt, or use the work for commercial purposes as long as the work is attributed (properly cited).
Open Access LicenseType of PaperFee
CC-BY-NC license
Research Paper
Brief Report
CC-BY license
Research Paper
Brief Report

Landes Bioscience Open Access Agreement for CC-BY-NC
Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License
Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License – Full Legal Code

Landes Bioscience Open Access Agreement for CC-BY
Creative Commons Attribution License
Creative Commons Attribution License – Full Legal Code

Compliance with Funding Agencies
All manuscripts that are agency-funded (e.g., NIH, HHMI, Wellcome Trust, etc.) and paid for using one of the above Creative Commons licenses will be automatically deposited and made publicly available in PubMed Central by the publisher. Agency-funded articles that are not open access will be deposited by the publisher and publicly available in PubMed Central (and Europe PMC) within 6-12 months of publication. Please note that Wellcome Trust-funded authors selecting an OA option are required by their funder to select the CC-BY license.

Author Self-Archiving
Authors are entitled to deposit a final version of their manuscript in their institution's repository immediately upon publication. Again, we only require that a link to the published version at the journal's website is included, along with attribution to the journal as the original source (with full citation details).

Manuscript Submission

Online Submission

Adipocyte utilizes an online submission and tracking system designed to provide a better, more efficient service to authors.

  • Authors can submit manuscripts online from anywhere in the world.
  • Authors can track their manuscript through the peer review process.
  • Author files are automatically converted into a PDF (Portable Document Format) file and submissions are acknowledged by email.
  • Editors and reviewers access the PDF files on the website.

Click here to submit your manuscript to Adipocyte.

Previously Submitted

Adipocyte recognizes that excellent papers may have been erroneously rejected by other journals. We will reconsider papers that have been rejected other journals in the original format of those journals, thus saving the authors effort and time. Authors are encouraged to enclose the reviewers' and/or editorial comments from the journals mentioned above, which will expedite the evaluation of the article. In some instances depending on the previous review and comments, the article may be accepted rapidly. This allows urgent and competitive research to be published soon after submission. Papers submitted using the Select Submission Track may be accepted following expedited review.

Please submit your paper and contact the Editor-in-Chief with the manuscript number and a PDF with the previous review. Upon acceptance, authors should provide the paper in Adipocyte's format.

Pre-submission Inquiries

Pre-submission inquiries are not necessary but are welcome. These may include either an abstract or a full-length manuscript as an email attachment (Microsoft Word). Pre-submission inquiries should be emailed to the Editor-in-Chief (Fahumiya Samad).

Non-Native Speakers of English

Authors who are not native speakers of English and submit manuscripts to international journals, often receive negative comments from referees or editors about English-language usage. These problems can contribute to a decision to reject a paper. To help reduce the possibility of such problems, we strongly encourage such authors to take at least one or both of the following steps:

  • Have your manuscript reviewed for clarity by a colleague whose native language is English.
  • Use a service such as one of those listed at the end of our guidelines. An editor will improve the English to ensure that your meaning is clear and identify problems that require your review. Note that the use of such a service is at the author's own expense and risk, and does not guarantee that the article will be accepted. Landes Bioscience accepts no responsibility for the interaction between the author and the service provider or for the quality of the work performed.

Manuscript Preparation

Types of Papers

Research Papers/Reports 
Research Papers or Reports should include the following sections in the following order: 
  • Abstract: A single paragraph of fewer than 250 words. The primary goal of the abstract should be to make the general significance and conceptual advance of the work clearly accessible to a broad readership. References should not be cited in the abstract. 
  • Keywords: Include 5-10 for indexing purposes. 
  • Introduction.
  • Results: Present results in a logical sequence in tables and illustrations. In the text, explain, emphasize or summarize the most important observations. Units of measurement should be expressed in accordance with Systeme International d'Unites (SI Units). 
  • Discussion: Do not repeat in detail the data given in the Results section. Emphasize the new and important aspects of the study. Relate observations to other relevant published studies. On the basis of your findings (and others'), discuss possible implications/conclusions for the area an field. When stating a new hypothesis, clearly label it as such. State the strengths and weaknesses / limitations of the study. 
  • Patients/Methods/Materials: Describe the selection of patients or experimental animals, including controls. Do not use patients' names or hospital numbers. Identify methods, apparatus (manufacturer's name and address) and procedures in sufficient detail to allow other workers to reproduce the results. Provide references and brief descriptions of methods that have been published. When using new methods, evaluate their advantages and limitations. Identify drugs and chemicals, including generic name, dosage and route(s) of administration. 
  • Indicate whether the procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee of Human Experimentation in your country, or are in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975. 
  • For reagents listed in the Materials and Methods section, the company that supplied the reagent and the catalog number should be listed in parentheses; do not list the company location. 
  • References: No more than 125. 
  • Figure legends. 
  • Tables: Tables should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals and include descriptive titles and legends. 
Please find more information on table and figure preparation within the menu options on the top-left side of this page. 

Brief Reports 
Brief Reports are aimed at publishing short, but important, breakthrough data not embedded within a complex story. This can also be what is considered a Small Publishable Unit. In other words, data that is sufficient in itself to be published, but not a part of a larger story that would comprise an entire research article. 

Brief Reports can also be mini-reviews with an small addition of novel data. The abstract should not be longer than 120 words. The paper should be structured as a research paper (see above), but without the headings and subheadings. No more than 50 references and no more than 4,500 words altogether. 
Reviews are intended for a broad audience and therefore should be written with a view to informing readers who are not specialized in that particular field. Please avoid excessive jargon and technical detail. Reviews should capture the broad developments and implications of recent work. They should include an abstract of 150 words and should cite no more than 150 references. Please include 5-10 key words for indexing purposes. 

Mini-reviews are brief biographical profiles, historical perspectives, or summaries of developments in fast-moving areas. They must be based on published articles; they may address any subject within the scope of the journal. They should not exceed 3,500 words (excluding the abstract, references and figure and table legends), 4 figures plus tables combined, and approximately 40 references. 

Technical Reports 
Technical Papers contain original research, however, they differ from Research Papers in that they describe new approaches, methods, or reagents rather than new understanding of a natural molecule or biological process. Papers may be submitted as either Technical or Research Papers, but the assignment to either category is the discretion of the Editors. All submissions will be peer reviewed. 

For Commentaries, the Editorial Board will solicit authors of the most significant recent and forthcoming papers, published elsewhere, to provide a short summary with additional insights, new interpretations or speculation on the relevant topic. These manuscripts may include models which due to space limitations were not included or discussed in the original paper. In other words, the authors may provide biased and uncensored points of views, complementing their article. 

Commentaries should range between 1000-3000 words. Please include an abstract of 150-200 words, 5-10 key words for indexing purposes and no more than 50 references. Figures are encouraged, but no more than 3. 

News & Views 
News & Views should be sent to the editor-in-chief or acquisitions editor directly. Please do NOT include any tables or an abstract. 

There are several types of News & Views: 
  • A focused review or theoretical paper that is primarily addressed to the experts in the field. It may emphasize an opinion of the authors', present a concept or authors' credo. 
  • A commentary on the most significant conceptual changes and on groundbreaking phenomena described in recent years, envisioning a potential conceptual framework for these phenomena.
Methods & Protocols 
Protocols describe a powerful experiment, a method or important technical updates relevant to the field. The Protocols section only features proven protocols, thus the authors of the protocol must have previously used their method to produce the work reported in a peer-reviewed primary journal. 

Generally Protocols are commissioned by the editorial team, but pre-submission inquiries are also welcome. Commissioned protocols will undergo peer review, thus commissioning does not guarantee publication. 

Please include the following: 
  • Title (should describe the method and, if appropriate, its application). 
  • Abstract (~150 words). Should briefly describe the protocol, its applications and the results that can be expected. If possible, include a final sentence indicating how long the whole protocol takes. 
  • Introduction. Should enable readers to make a decision as to the suitability of the protocol to their experimental problem. You should introduce the technique under discussion and include references to key papers where the protocol has been used previously. This section should include information on (a) the development of the protocol, (b) potential applications of the method, (c) comparison with other methods and (d) experimental design with procedure-specific information. 
  • Materials. Please use the subheadings (a) Reagents, (b) Equipment, (c) Reagent Setup and (d) Equipment Setup to structure this section. Subheadings (c) and (d) are optional. 
    • Reagents. List of essential reagents, including information about the suppliers. If you have found that deviations from a particular reagent, or its source, have adverse effects on the outcome of the protocol this should be made clear. Toxic or harmful agents should be highlighted, followed by a brief explanation of the hazard and the precautions that should be taken when handling the agent. 
    • Equipment. List essential equipment, highlighting any specialist equipment required. 
    • Reagent Setup. This section is appropriate for including details on required sample specifications (i.e. minimum protein quantity and allowed buffer components), preparation of a complicated buffers, the pre-treatment of solvents and/or reagents to make sure they are moisture-free and/or air-free. Please indicate whether a buffer/solution should be made up fresh or can be stored and, if so, under which conditions and for how long. In addition please state whether % solutions are wt/vol or vol/vol. 
    • Equipment Setup. This section should contain details on the setup of equipment (i.e. HPLC separation methods). 
  • Procedure. This step by step methodology is the major part of the protocol and must be a numbered list. If the protocol naturally breaks into separate stages, then include subheadings and resume the numbered list. State how long the section will take to complete. Include diagrams and/or photographs of equipment set-up, where appropriate. If the protocol is complicated, you should consider including a flow diagram to demonstrate how the stages fit together. Please include PROBLEM callouts after steps where problems are encountered, that are subsequently mentioned in the Problem Handling section. 
  • Timing. If possible, please include a timeline indicating the approximate time a step, or set of steps, will take. Provide this information as a summary at the end of the procedure. 
  • Problem Handling (Problem Tracing, Fault Finding, Fault Diagnosis). Include information on how to trace and correct the most likely problems users will encounter with the protocol. Please provide this information in the form of a table with the columns ‘Step’, ‘problem’, ‘possible reason’, ‘solution’. The step number should be given where the problem is first observed (not where it occurred). The appropriate steps should also be flagged in the main text by the heading ‘Problem’. If problem handling text refers to only one or two steps, it can also be formatted as normal text with subheadings referring to the steps or sections that the information pertains to. 
  • Anticipated Results. Include information about the likely outcome for users, for example, likely yield of protein, typical microscopy images, etc. This is a good place to include directions on how to interpret and analyze the raw data, including equations if necessary.Meeting Reports Meeting Reports are summaries of presentations from recent meetings in the field. Authors are encouraged to contact the Editor-in-Chief with proposals for meeting reports. Also, please contact the meeting organizers to verify that reports will be permitted. Please include an abstract of 150-200 words and 5-10 key words for indexing purposes.      


All manuscripts should be in English. Please ensure that manuscripts are clear, concise and grammatically correct.

Text should be prepared in MS Word, double-spaced, with page numbers throughout and line numbering turned on. Click here for directions on adding line numbers.

Organize manuscripts in the following manner:

  • Title page, including titles, author's names (first, MI, last) and affiliations
  • 5-10 keywords (for indexing purposes)
  • A list of abbreviations and acronyms used throughout the text
  • An abstract (please see Type of Paper for word limit), the primary goal of which is to make the general significance and conceptual advance of the work clearly accessible to a broad readership. (References should not be cited in the abstract.)
  • Text (length and organization depends upon type of paper)
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Figure legends
  • Tables (with descriptive titles and legends)

There are no word limits for papers published, however, accepted manuscripts are published with the understanding that page and color charges will be assessed. Please see the section, Page and Color Charges below.

If your paper is to be published in a journal indexed by PubMed/Medline, the citation of your article will be sent to PubMed within one week of acceptance; therefore, please ensure that all information is correct.

Text Files/Tables

Please save text and table files as MS Word documents. Figure legends should be at the end of the manuscript following references. Tables will be reformatted during production and therefore should only be minimally formatted in your text file and follow the figure legends.

Figure Preparation

Figures should be as small and simple as clarity permits. Unnecessary figures and panels in figures should be avoided: data presented in small tables or histograms, for instance, can generally be stated briefly in the text instead. Avoid unnecessary complexity, coloring and excessive detail. Figures should not contain more than one panel unless the parts are logically connected. Where possible, text, including keys to symbols, should be provided in the text of the figure legend rather than on the figure itself. Any image processing should be explained clearly in the Materials and Methods section of your manuscript.

To aid in the processing and turnaround of issues, we ask that authors please adhere to the following figure guidelines. Authors will be asked to revise details and images if they do not adhere to the figure protocols.

Guidelines for Figure Preparation

Image presentation
(These guidelines for image presentation are adapted from the “Instructions for Authors” that are posted on the Journal of Cell Biology web site, and are included here with permission).

As you prepare your figures, please adhere to the following guidelines to accurately present your data:

  1. No specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced.
  2. The grouping of images from different parts of the same gel, or from different gels, fields, or exposures must be made explicit by the arrangement of the figure (i.e., using dividing lines) and in the text of the figure legend.
  3. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if they are applied to the whole image and as long as they do not obscure, eliminate, or misrepresent any information present in the original, including the background. Non-linear adjustments must be disclosed in the figure legend.

A more detailed discussion of image presentation can be found at the following URL: http://jcb.rupress.org/content/166/1/11.full (Rossner and Yamada, J. Cell Biol. 166:11–15)

All submitted images must be of high quality and have resolutions of 300 dpi ready for print.

We require figures in electronic format. Please do not send PowerPoint, MS Word, presentation or paint files as they are inadequate for the creation of high quality images. Much of the information contained in PowerPoint or other file types is lost or skewed in the conversion of images. Figures should be provided as TIF, Photoshop, EPS or high resolution PDF files. Compatible graphic art programs are Adobe Illustrator and Adobe Photoshop.

Figure size
Figures should be submitted at the size they are to be published. Maximum width = 7.1 in. Maximum height = 9.5 in.

For multi-panel figures (such as figure 1a, 1b, 1c, etc.), each panel should be assembled into one image file. Do not include separate panels on multiple pages, i.e. A, B, C and D should all fit on one page. Each panel should be sized so that the figure as a whole can be reduced by the same amount and reproduced on the printed page at the smallest size at which essential details, including type, are visible and readable.

Color mode
Save all color figures in CMYK mode at 8 bits/channel. Layering type directly over shaded or textured areas and using reversed type (white lettering on a colored background) should be avoided.

Please be sure to embed all fonts. Use a sans serif font such as Helvetica. The font size should be no greater than 9 pt. and no smaller than 6 pt; however, panel labels (A, B, C) should be 15 pt. uppercase (not bold). Lettering in figures (labeling of axes and so on) should be in lowercase type, with the first letter capitalized and no full stop. Please keep font size relatively the same throughout the figures so as to avoid scaling issues. Also note that readability suffers if type is layered over a pattern or color other than white or black.

Units should have a single space between the number and the unit, and follow SI nomenclature or the nomenclature common to a particular field. Thousands should be separated by commas (1,000). Unusual units or abbreviations should be defined in the legend. Please use the proper microsymbol (denoting a factor of one millionth) rather than a lower case u.


Include in the reference list only those articles that have been published or have been accepted for publication. All references to unpublished data or personal communications must be cited within the text.

Use the citation-sequence system: The list of references should be numbered consecutively according to the sequence of first appearance within the article text. For in-text references, use only the number assigned to the reference:

Correct: according to Jones.1
Incorrect: according to Jones1.
Correct: noted by Smith et al.1
Incorrect: Smith et al (1).

When referring the reader to specific references as part of a sentence please use the following format:

Correct: For a review see refs. 20-25.
Incorrect: For a review see 20-25

Journal References

  • The reference format is the same for all of our journals. You may download the output style for Cell Cycle from Endnotes, or view it in the CSL Style Repository.
  • List, at minimum, ten author names before using “et al.”
  • Abbreviate journal names according to the style used in Index Medicus or a comparable source and omit punctuation after journal titles. Spell out foreign or less commonly known journal names.

Standard format:
[Author's last name] [Author's initials], [First ten author's last names followed by their initials]. [Title of article with only the first word capitalized]. [Journal's standard abbreviated name] [Year]; [Volume]:[Inclusive pages].

For Example:
Haegel H, Thioudellet C, Hallet R, Geist M, Menguy T, Le Pogam F, Marchand J, Toh M, Duong V, Calcei A, et al. A unique anti-CD115 monoclonal antibody which inhibits osteolysis and skews human monocyte differentiation from M2-polarized macrophages toward dendritic cells. mAbs 2013; 5: 243–56.

Other Types of References
For all other types of reference styling formats, please refer to the National Library of Medicine Style Guide for Authors, Editors and Publishers which is available here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7256

Supplementary Files

The following fees apply for any supplementary material posted with a manuscript. A $100 fee is assessed for all text, figures and/or tables. Supplementary movies carry a rate of $150 for the first five movie files and $50 for each subsequent movie file. Fees will be outlined on the publication charge form authors receive with galley proofs.

Please provide supplementary material in the following formats:

  • Text: MS Word file
  • Table/Data: MS Word file or Excel file
  • Figures: Please provide figures in a MS Word file or in a PPT file, clearly labeled with figure legends below them.
  • Video Files: Video submissions for viewing online should be Audio Video Interleave (.avi), MPEG (.mpg, .mp4), or Quick Time (.qt, .mov).
    • AVI files can be displayed via Windows Media Player; MPEG files can be displayed via Windows Media Player; Quick Time files require Quick Time software (free) from Apple
    • Videos should be brief whenever possible (<2-5 minutes). Longer videos will require longer download times and may have difficulty playing online. Videos should be restricted to the most critical aspects of your research. A longer procedure can be restructured as several shorter videos and submitted in that form.
    • It is advisable to compress files to use as little bandwidth as possible and to avoid overly long download times. Video files should be no larger than 5 megabytes. This is a suggested maximum. If files are larger, please contact the Managing Editor.
    • A caption giving a brief overall description of the video content should be provided for each video.
    • If your paper is accepted for publication you may wish to supply the editorial office with several different resolutions of your video files. This will allow viewers with slower connections to download a lower resolution version of your video.

Please also provide ALL files in one PDF file. Links to supplementary data will be included in the PDF of the published manuscript and in the online abstract.

Cover Image Submission

Adipocyte selects a cover illustration from accepted articles, or from submitted images that are designed to accompany an accepted article.

The cover illustration should be scientifically interesting and visually attractive. The illustration need not be a figure from the paper, but should be closely related to the subject of the paper. If you are interested in submitting a figure for use as the cover of Adipocyte, please email a high-resolution version of your image, conforming to the specifications below, and an explanatory caption of 50-60 words to the Managing Editor.

All potential cover images should be sized to fit on a single letter size (8.5" x 11") page. Please remove all text, captions, etc. from the image. If you have variations of the image, you may send additional files. Please send no more than two alternate versions.

Accepted formats and resolution:

  • PSD (Adobe Photoshop: if graphics are built with layers, do not flatten), 300 dpi, CMYK at 100% size.
  • TIF, 300 dpi, CMYK at 100% size
  • JPG, 300 dpi highest quality, CMYK at 100% size.
  • EPS (scalable vector line art)
  • AI (Adobe Illustrator)

Publication Charges, Page Proofs and Ordering Reprints

Publication Fee
There is a $250 publication fee to publish in Adipocyte. This fee covers the costs of the peer-review process, editing, layout, printing, indexing, and archiving of your article. This fee includes a PDF copy of your article.

Color Charges
Color charges are assessed separately from page charges and will be added to the total amount of page charges assessed. Publication of color images is free for the online version of the journal, but carries a page charge of $340 US dollars for the initial page and $150 for each additional page in the print edition. Authors may choose to convert color images to grayscale for the print edition of their manuscript in order to eliminate color charges. If a figure legend contains references to color and the figure is converted to grayscale, the reader is encouraged to view the color version of the figure online.

Under exceptional circumstances, where there are no funds to cover page charges and articles cannot be reduced in size, authors may appeal directly to the Editor for page charges to be waived. This appeal must be supported with a letter signed by a finance official at the author’s institution, confirming that no funds are available to cover page charges.

Page Proofs
Page proofs will be sent to the author via email. Page proofs should be returned within two working days, preferably by email. Corrections should be marked on the actual proof and provided in a numbered list. Lengthy additions should be avoided, but where necessary should be provided in a MS Word file, with explicit instructions regarding placement.

Please download this form and return it to our office to place an order for reprints. Reprint Form

Open Access Fees

Open Access prices vary based on the type of paper and the desired Creative Commons license you wish to use. A description of the licenses that we work with is here:

  • CC-BY-NC: Anyone may copy, distribute, transmit, or adapt the work as long as the work is attributed (properly cited). This work may not be used for commercial purposes.
  • CC-BY: Anyone may copy, distribute, transmit, adapt, or use the work for commercial purposes as long as the work is attributed (properly cited).
Open Access LicenseType of PaperFee
CC-BY-NC license
Research Paper
Brief Report
CC-BY license
Research Paper
Brief Report

Services for Non-Native English Speakers

AmEditor’s editorial staff is composed of native English speaking scientists and medical professionals, who are capable of addressing both grammatical and content issues. Our mission is to help authors prepare their manuscripts such that they meet or exceed the high standards of today’s peer-reviewed journals.

American Journal Experts
American Journal Experts (AJE) provides professional language editing services to authors around the globe who wish to publish in scientific, technical, medical and humanities journals. AJE employs expert editors with post-graduate training in a wide variety of fields who will check your manuscripts not only for terminology and language specific to your field but also for proper English usage, grammar, punctuation, spelling, verb tense, and phrasing. In addition, AJE's professional editors will make sure the text sounds natural and the sentences are well constructed. Visit their website for more information or to submit a document for their journal editing service.

10% Discount: enter code 'Landes' into your account to receive your discount.

Bioedit English Language Editing
Bioedit Ltd, an online English editing company, offers unprecedented, high-quality English editing of biomedical texts destined for submission to peer-reviewed journals in the life sciences. The texts are edited by a large, expert team of native English-speaking editors with Ph.D.s and years of experience in a broad range of disciplines in medicine and biology.

  • Editing of the same manuscript by up to three independent editors, including a subject-specific editor and a grammar expert.
  • Tremendous value with no hidden costs.
  • Express editing in less than 48 hours.
  • Secure and confidential.

First-time clients will receive a special 20% rebate if they are submitting their work to a Landes Bioscience journal.

Bioscience Editing Solutions
Bioscience Editing Solutions provides premier English language editing services for the international community. All of our editors are native English-speaking Ph.D. or M.D. graduates of Ivy League institutions with proven research and publishing success in top-tier journals. We have the knowledge and experience to prepare your manuscript for competitive submission to any journal.

  • 2 independent editors work on your manuscript
  • Editing complete in 2-4 days
  • One low price for all editing and revisions
  • Secure and confidential
  • Native speakers available in several languages
  • 10% discount for submission to any Landes Bioscience journal

BioScience Writers
BioScience Writers is a scientific editing company committed to helping authors from the global scientific community maximize the accuracy and impact of their written documents to enhance scientific publication efforts. We provide the highest quality scientific document editing service at a reasonable price with rapid turnaround. All of our editors are native English speakers and Ph.D.- or M.D.-trained scientists who understand the requirements for publishing science, technical, and medical documents. BioScience Writers provides a no-risk guarantee: we will work to ensure you are pleased with every edited document you receive from us, or provide a full refund. Landes Bioscience Journals authors will receive a 25% discount on their first order! Just include the promotion code 'Landes' via our web site, or when submitting your manuscript by email.

Cambridge Proofreading LTD
Based in Cambridge, England. Provides proofreading services for the academic sector throughout the world. Quote 'Landes Bioscience' for a 20% discount.

Editage, a leading international English editing, writing, and publication service provider, offers multiple-level editing services that check for meaning, punctuation, grammar, sentence construction, logic, structure, and journal formatting. Editage is a preferred brand for non-native English speakers in East Asia.

  • Subject-matter expertise—editors from bioscience disciplines
  • Fast turnaround times—24-hour delivery for emergencies
  • 24/7 online system—manage accounts, track manuscripts, post requests
  • 100% confidentiality
  • Unlimited questions for editor
  • ISO 9001:2000-certified editing processes
  • Free journal formatting
  • Mention “Landes Bioscience” as “Reference” while submitting manuscript and receive a flat 10% discount.

Emedits specializes in medical and science editing and has a proven track record in helping authors to achieve publication success.

We offer a wide range of editorial and publication support services, including: English-language editing, formatting of manuscripts to meet journal-specific author guidelines, pre-submission peer review, journal selection, point-by-point responses, revision of articles for resubmission, cover letter development, publication planning, and medical writing. Our experienced team consists of published native-English PhD/MD scientists from top universities, expert peer reviewers and former journal editors: we aim to give authors the best chance of publishing in top-tier journals.

For more information about our services please visit www.emedits.com.

Fresh Eyes Editing
Fresh Eyes Editing specializes in providing high-quality, timely, and confidential editing services to the biomedical community.

Our goal is to help you convey your results in a clear, concise, and logical manner. Improving the grammar and style of your manuscript will highlight your research, allowing the science to speak for itself.

At Fresh Eyes Editing, we strive to maintain the integrity and meaning of your documents, so it's your writing... perfected. Contact us today at info@fresheyesediting.com for a free estimate, and mention Landes Bioscience to receive a 10% discount.

Inter-Biotec provides a free online writing course to help biomedical scientists whose first language is not English to write and publish their papers in English-language journals.

International Edit
A truly unique service – quality, affordable editing with a personal touch.

  1. We are 10 career editors – unlike our competitors, we do NOT send your paper to a freelancer. This ensures careful, consistent, and confidential editing.
  2. More than copyediting. A sentence that is perfect grammatically may still not make your point. We work with you to get it right.
  3. Have your own personal editor for life – email us about anything, we’re here to help.
  4. Free follow-up with every edit.
  5. Authors do not pay until after receiving and reviewing their edit.
  6. No registration. No hassle. We never have access to any of your personal information.
Mention code 10LN20 for a 20% discount.

Medjaden (美捷登) Bioscience Limited provides professional, customizable and reliable editing, re-writing and writing services for biomedical scientists worldwide, especially those in non-English speaking countries. Our dedicated editing team consists of over 200 world-class professors, scientists, medical doctors, statisticians and language experts. Each manuscript for editing, re-writing or writing will be evaluated prior to service, and then edited by at least two editors and proofread by a language expert, and may go through multiple interactions among our editor(s) and the author if needed to ensure its quality. We continue to pursue our "charge once, serve until publication" policy.

Any customers who find us through Landes Bioscience would be automatically eligible for our VIP membership and enjoy a discount of up to 8% and all other VIP privileges. For more information, please visit www.medjaden.com or call +852 81350971.

Scribendi.com is an ISO-certified organization that has provided English language editing services to academics since 1997. We believe that your submission deserves to be judged on merit, not rejected because of English language issues. Our expert English editors will review your draft, checking it for things like clarity, academic style, word choice, sentence structure, idiomatic expression, and consistency, to make sure you are expressing yourself clearly. The English editing service is designed to make you sound like a native English speaker.

We will also check it for spelling, grammar, and typographical errors, as well as common English-as-a-second-language problems, such as article usage, countable nouns, overuse of transitions, and much more.

Use the code LANDES10 to receive a discount when you order.

Sees-editing Ltd.
Sees-editing Ltd. was founded in 1995 to help scientists, especially those whose first language is not English, prepare all kinds of papers that must be presented in English. All our editors have a PhD in a scientific discipline. We fully understand the process of writing research papers, grant proposals, theses and reports, and the need to do so quickly, accurately and effectively. We have knowledge and expertise covering the full spectrum of scientific endeavour, providing a comprehensive professional service to edit, correct and re-arrange all types of technical material written in English. Our aim is to “level the playing field” for our clients, i.e. to ensure that the chance of the work being accepted by targeted journals is at least as high as if it had been written by highly fluent and qualified US or British scientists.
For more information about our services visit www.sees-editing.co.uk or contact enquiries@sees-editing.co.uk

Stickler Editing
Stickler Editing is a leading online professional editing and proofreading services provider. We offer top-notch quality editing for highly-specialized papers and journal entries at reasonable rates with quick turnaround times. For more details and to get a free quote, visit our website at www.sticklerediting.com.