Surgical resection is considered the definitive treatment for patients with solid neoplastic tumors. Recent experimental evidence, however, suggests that undergoing surgery may actually play a role—via activation of the surgical stress response—in promoting postoperative metastases. Additionally, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that attenuation of the surgical stress response may, in fact, reduce the postoperative cancer recurrence and metastasis. One element of the surgical stress response amenable to perioperative attenuation is neuroendocrine activation by β blockade. Although initial data in animals appears promising, further research into the potential benefit of this therapeutic modality aimed at reducing postoperative cancer metastases is warranted.