The mammalian airways are lined by airway epithelial cells that are constantly engaged in the removal of inhaled pathogens (bacteria, viruses and fungi) or particles (smoke and diesel‑exhaust particles) by mucociliary mechanisms. Epithelial cells recognize vast repertoire of pathogens via pattern‑recognition receptors as Toll‑like receptors (TLRs) or non‑TLRs, and initiate signaling pathways, which mediate secretion of several cytokines/chemokines and recruitment of inflammatory cells. Human airways are constantly exposed to spores of ubiquitous fungus, Aspergillus fumigatus; the development of pulmonary manifestations depending largely on the immune and genetic status of the host. Although large numbers of studies describe the role of myeloid cells in Aspergillus‑host interactions; a growing body of evidence points to the critical role of airway epithelium in binding and clearance of A. fumigatus conidia, and mounting innate and adaptive immune responses. However, little is known about the epithelial cell receptor(s) involved in mediating recognition and subsequent immune responses to A. fumigatus. This chapter is focused on the possible mechanisms through which airway epithelium participates in the recognition and/or internalization of A. fumigatus morphotypes, and mounts effective immunity.