The Golgi Apparatus
Zhaolin Hua and Todd R. Graham
Secretion of proteins from eukaryotic cells requires the coordinated function of multiple organelles and cellular machineries. After synthesis and translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum, proteins are exported to the Golgi apparatus, a multi-compartment organelle that is the protein modifying, packaging and distribution center of the secretory pathway. This chapter provides a brief historical account of the discovery of the Golgi apparatus, a description of its unique structure and organization, and its role in glycoprotein biosynthesis, sorting and secretion. The biogenesis of the Golgi through localization of resident proteins and its inheritance during cell division is also described. Emphasis is placed on processes, such as protein transport through the Golgi, that are incompletely understood and remain focal points for current research in this field.