Role of Endocrine-Genotoxic Switchings in Cancer and Other Human Diseases: Basic Triad
Lev M. Berstein
Cancer is one of the leading causes of human death and belongs to the group of main chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCD). Certain specific features of NCD have raised the concept of ‘normal’ and ‘successful’ aging. The apparent paradox of simultaneous increase with aging of the diseases connected with estrogen deficiency as well as with estrogenic excess can be explained by the existence of the phenomenon of the switching of estrogen effects. An isolated or combined with the weakening of hormonal effect increase in genotoxic action of estrogens can modify the course of age‑associated pathology. In particular, such changes in estrogen effect may alter the biology of tumors to make them less favorable/more aggressive. Two other endocrine‑genotoxic switchings (EGS) involving phenomena of Janus (dual) function of glucose and adipogenotoxicosis may produce similar influences on tumor and other NCD biology. These three phenomena form a ‘basic triad’ and can act independently of each other or in concert. EGS and their inductors may serve as targets for prevention and, probably, treatment of main noncommunicable diseases. The measures to correct components of the ‘triad’ can be divided into several groups aimed to optimally orchestrate the balance between endocrine and DNA‑damaging effects of estrogens, glucose and adipose tissue‑related factors.