Cytonemes As Cell-Cell Channels in Human Blood Cells
Svetlana Ivanovna Galkina, Anatoly Georgievich Bogdanov, Georgy Natanovich Davidovich and Galina Fedorovna Sud’ina
Human blood cell similar to embryonic and nerve cells can extend thin and very long exten-\r\n sions having the same diameter along the entire length called cytonemes. Cytonemes were \r\n shown to connect blood cells over a distance of several cell diameters and transport membrane proteins, lipids and ions from one of connected cells to another one, thus executing long range intercellular communications. Formation and breakage of cytonemes upon neutrophil rolling along the vessel walls regulate rolling velocity and control neutrophil adhesion to the endothelium. Direct interaction of neutrophils with platelets over a distance seems to be of great importance in thrombosis. Cytonemes of B cells, peripheral NK cells, monocytes and dendritic cells can play a critical role in long range cellular signalling upon antigen presentation and formation of immune response.